The History of Pumpkin Pie

The History of Pumpkin Pie

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It’s hard to imagine an American Thanksgiving table without the ubiquitous orange-crusted custard made from strained, spiced and twice-cooked squash.

Few of our festival foods can claim deeper American roots than pumpkins, which were first cultivated in Central America around 5,500 B.C. and were one of the earliest foods the first European explorers brought back from the New World. The orange gourds’ first mention in Europe dates to 1536, and within a few decades they were grown regularly in England, where they were called “pumpions,” after the French “pompon,” a reference to their rounded form.

Pumpkins, as the Americans grew to call them, quickly became part of England’s highly developed pie-making culture, which had for centuries been producing complex stuffed pastries in sweet and savory varieties. When the Pilgrims sailed for America on the Mayflower in 1620, it’s likely some of them were as familiar with pumpkins as the Wampanoag, who helped them survive their first year at Plymouth Colony, were. A year later, when the 50 surviving colonists were joined by a group of 90 Wampanoag for a three-day harvest celebration, it’s likely that pumpkin was on the table in some form. As useful as the orange squash were (especially as a way to make bread without much flour), they weren’t always popular. In 1654, Massachusetts ship captain Edward Johnson wrote that as New England prospered, people prepared “apples, pears, and quince tarts instead of their former Pumpkin Pies.”

What were these “former Pumpkin Pies” like? At the time, pumpkin pie existed in many forms, only a few of which would be familiar to us today. A 1653 French cookbook instructed chefs to boil the pumpkin in milk and strain it before putting it in a crust. English writer Hannah Woolley’s 1670 “Gentlewoman’s Companion” advocated a pie filled with alternating layers of pumpkin and apple, spiced rosemary, sweet marjoram and handful of thyme. Sometimes a crust was unnecessary; an early New England recipe involved filling a hollowed-out pumpkin with spiced, sweetened milk and cooking it directly in a fire (an English version of the same preparation had the pumpkin stuffed with sliced apples).

By the early 18th century pumpkin pie had earned a place at the table, as Thanksgiving became an important New England regional holiday. In 1705 the Connecticut town of Colchester famously postponed its Thanksgiving for a week because there wasn’t enough molasses available to make pumpkin pie. Amelia Simmons’ pioneering 1796 “American Cookery” contained a pair of pumpkin pie recipes, one of which similar to today’s custard version.

It wasn’t until the mid-19th century, though, that pumpkin pie rose to political significance in the United States as it was injected into the country’s tumultuous debate over slavery. Many of the staunchest abolitionists were from New England, and their favorite dessert soon found mention in novels, poems and broadsides. Sarah Josepha Hale, an abolitionist who worked for decades to have Thanksgiving proclaimed a national holiday, featured the pie in her 1827 anti-slavery novel “Northwood,” describing a Thanksgiving table laden with desserts of every name and description—“yet the pumpkin pie occupied the most distinguished niche.” In 1842 another abolitionist, Lydia Maria Child, wrote her famous poem about a New England Thanksgiving that began, “Over the river, and through the wood” and ended with a shout, “Hurra for the pumpkin pie!”

It’s no wonder that, when Abraham Lincoln made Thanksgiving a national holiday in 1863, observers in the Confederacy saw it as a move to impose Yankee traditions on the South. An editorialist in Richmond, Virginia, offered a sardonic explanation of the Yankee Thanksgiving: “This is an annual custom of that people, heretofore celebrated with devout oblations to themselves of pumpkin pie and roast turkey.”

After the Civil War, Thanksgiving—and with it, pumpkin pie—extended its national reach, bolstered by write-ups in women’s magazines like the one that Hale edited. In 1929 Libby’s meat-canning company of Chicago introduced a line of canned pumpkin that soon became a Thanksgiving fixture in its own right, replacing the need for roasting and straining one’s own squash. Next time you open a can, consider the past: the centuries of industrialists, editors, housewives, anti-slavery firebrands, culinary experimenters and Mesoamerican agriculturalists whose combined labors made your pumpkin pie possible.

1621 The settlers of Plymouth Plantation did not even consider the humble pumpkin as a food source until many of them became ill/died in the first winter in America. Once the Native Americans gifted them this fruit, they made (kind of) pumpkin pies by stewing the pumpkin's insides and then filling the hollowed out pumpkin shells with milk, honey and spices. Then they baked it over hot ashes. There was actually no such thing as pastry crusts in the colonies back then!

1651 Francois Pierre la Varenne, a famous French chef and cookbook author, put a recipe for a pumpkin pie in his cookbook Le Vrai Cuisinier Francois (The True French Cook). This is the first published recipe to include a pastry crust. It read:

“Tourte of pumpkin – Boile it with good milk, pass it through a straining pan very thick, and mix it with sugar, butter, a little salt and if you will, a few stamped almonds let all be very thin. Put it in your sheet of paste bake it. After it is baked, besprinkle it with sugar and serve.”

By the 1670’s the “pumpion pie” was featured in many cookbooks in Europe, but not in America.

1670 Hannah Woolley wrote an book for women called "The Gentlewoman's Companion." This book includes tips and tricks for the 17th century woman's everyday life. It also contains a recipe for pumpkin pie! Woolley suggests making a layered pie, with layers of pumpkin, apple, and herbs.

1796 The first American cookbook by Amelia Simmons was published in America, and it included pumpkin pie! Simmons’ “pompkin puddings” were the closest thing so far to the pumpkin pie filling that we know and love today.

1827— Sarah Josepha Hale, an abolitionist and Thanksgiving fan (she worked to get it approved as a national holiday), wrote about pumpkin pie in her anti-slavery novel titled “Northwood.” Here she described a Thanksgiving table scene with many desserts, but said “the pumpkin pie occupied the most distinguished niche.”

1842— Lydia Maria Child, another abolitionist, wrote a famous poem titled “Thanksgiving Day,” in which she described the excitement that she feels for Thanksgiving. She perfectly captured that feeling that I think we can all relate to when we see that glorious dessert: “ Hurrah for the fun!/ Is the pudding done? / Hurrah for the pumpkin-pie!”

Pumpkin History

References to pumpkins date back many centuries. The name pumpkin originated from the Greek word for "large melon" which is "pepon." "Pepon" was nasalized by the French into "pompon." The English changed "pompon" to "Pumpion." Shakespeare referred to the "pumpion" in his Merry Wives of Windsor. American colonists changed "pumpion" into "pumpkin." The "pumpkin" is referred to in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Peter, Peter, Pumpkin Eater and Cinderella.

Native Americans dried strips of pumpkin and wove them into mats. They also roasted long strips of pumpkin on the open fire and ate them. The origin of pumpkin pie occurred when the colonists sliced off the pumpkin top, removed the seeds, and filled the insides with milk, spices and honey. The pumpkin was then baked in hot ashes.

History of the Jack-o-Lantern

People have been making jack-o-lanterns at Halloween for centuries. The practice originated from an Irish myth about a man nicknamed "Stingy Jack." According to the story, Stingy Jack invited the Devil to have a drink with him. True to his name, Stingy Jack didn't want to pay for his drink, so he convinced the Devil to turn himself into a coin that Jack could use to buy their drinks. Once the Devil did so, Jack decided to keep the money and put it into his pocket next to a silver cross, which prevented the Devil from changing back into his original form. Jack eventually freed the Devil, under the condition that he would not bother Jack for one year and that, should Jack die, he would not claim his soul. The next year, Jack again tricked the Devil into climbing into a tree to pick a piece of fruit. While he was up in the tree, Jack carved a sign of the cross into the tree's bark so that the Devil could not come down until the Devil promised Jack not to bother him for ten more years.

Soon after, Jack died. As the legend goes, God would not allow such an unsavory figure into heaven. The Devil, upset by the trick Jack had played on him and keeping his word not to claim his soul, would not allow Jack into hell. He sent Jack off into the dark night with only a burning coal to light his way. Jack put the coal into a carved out turnip and has been roaming the Earth with it ever since. The Irish began to refer to this ghostly figure as "Jack of the Lantern," and then, simply "Jack O'Lantern."

In Ireland and Scotland, people began to make their own versions of Jack's lanterns by carving scary faces into turnips or potatoes and placing them into windows or near doors to frighten away Stingy Jack and other wandering evil spirits. In England, large beets are used. Immigrants from these countries brought the jack o'lantern tradition with them when they came to the United States. They soon found that pumpkins, a fruit native to America, make perfect jack o'lanterns.

History of Pumpkin Pie

The history of pumpkin pie includes tales associated with European explorers, the Mayflower and abolitionists. The cultivation of pumpkins go way back to roughly 5,500 BC and was one of the first foods explorers of the New World brought back to England. Documentation of pumpkins in England began in 1536 at which time the gourd was known as “pumpions.” Now before you start picturing a pumpkin onion, that name actually came from the French word “pompon” due to its round shape.

It is likely that pumpkins were part of the meal on the very first Thanksgiving. Fast forward a few decades, various versions of pumpkin pie began taking shape. In 1653, a French cookbook detailed boiling pumpkin in milk and straining it. In 1670, English writer Hannah Woolley spoke of a pie filled with layers that alternate between pumpkin and apple. In some cases, a hollowed out pumpkin was filled with sweetened milk and spices then cooked directly over a fire – sans pie crust.

In the early 18th century, one Connecticut town was known to have postponed Thanksgiving due to a molasses shortage that made it impossible to prepare pumpkin pie (can you say #respect?). In the 1800s, abolitionist authors often wrote of Thanksgiving and pumpkin pie as a staple. So when it came time for Abraham Lincoln to proclaim Thanksgiving as a national holiday, many people in the Confederacy saw it as a “Yankee tradition.”

Following the Civil War, pumpkin pie was alas embraced by all as Libby’s meat-canning company of Chicago launched the revolutionary canned pumpkin – taking all of the labor out of our beloved Thanksgiving treat.

The History Behind Pumpkin Pie

Now that fall has arrived, we’ve got pumpkins on the brain – especially pumpkin pie. And that got us thinking about the history behind pumpkin pie.

Pumpkin pie is extremely popular in America and Canada. But where did our obsession with pumpkin pie begin?

Pumpkin Pie Origins

The name pumpkin originated from the Greek word for large melon: “pepon.” The French changed “pepon” to “pompon.” The English termed it “pumpion” or “pompion.”

Early American settlers of the Plymouth Colony in southern New England (1620-1692), may have made pumpkin pies, of sorts, without crusts. They stewed pumpkins or filled a hollowed out pumpkin shell with milk, honey and spices and then baked it in hot ashes.

Northeastern Native American tribes grew squash and pumpkins. The Native Americans brought pumpkins as gifts to the first settlers, and taught them the many uses for pumpkin. This led to serving pumpkin pie at the first Thanksgiving in America about 50 years later.

1651 –

Francois Pierre la Varenne was a famous French chef and author of one of the most important French cookbooks of the 17th century, Le Vrai Cuisinier Francois (The True French Cook). It was translated and published in England as The French Cook in 1653. This cookbook contained a recipe for “Tourte of Pumpkin” that featured a pastry shell:

Tourte of Pumpkin – Boile it with good milk, pass it through a straining pan very thick, and mix it with sugar, butter, a little salt and if you will, a few stamped almonds let all be very thin. Put it in your sheet of paste bake it. After it is baked, besprinkle it with sugar and serve.

1670s –

By the 1670s, recipes for “pumpion pie” began to appear in English cookbooks. The pumpkin pie recipes started to sound more familiar, including spices such as cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves. Often the recipes added apples, raisins or currants to the filling.

It was not until 1796 that a truly American cookbook called American Cookery, by an American Orphan by Amelia Simmons, was published. It was the first American cookbook written and published here, and the first with recipes for foods native to America. Simmons’ pumpkin puddings were baked in a crust and similar to present-day pumpkin pies.

The world’s largest pumpkin pie was made on Sept. 25, 2010, in New Bremen, Ohio, at the New Bremen Pumpkinfest. The pie consisted of 1,212 pounds of canned pumpkin, 109 gallons of evaporated milk, 2,796 eggs, 7 pounds of salt, 14.5 pounds of cinnamon, and 525 pounds of sugar. The final pie weighed 3,699 pounds and measured 20 feet in diameter. That’s quite a feat of pumpkin pie baking!

Today –

These days, home bakers have a plethora of pumpkin-inspired recipes to choose from – thank you, Pinterest! Seems like pumpkin pie is not only a staple at Thanksgiving, but also Christmas. It’s really the perfect fall holiday treat.

And here at Tippin’s, we’re happy to share our made-from-scratch pumpkin pies with you. Stop in to one of these locations and pick up the best pumpkin pie around. The holidays can be hectic… leave the baking to us!

Tippin’s Pumpkin Pie

A Virginian Heritage

Libby’s story begins in 1795, with the birth of Elijah Dickinson in Spotsylvania, Virginia — just 62 miles south of Nestlé USA’s new home in Rosslyn, where I work today.

Dickinson had a full life — he survived a war, moved to Kentucky, married Mary Anne Burros and had many children, before making a choice that would change his life and the lives of Americans (yes, even you) forever. He packed up his worldly possessions and moved north to Illinois, near present-day Eureka, with one of his prized possessions: Dickinson pumpkin seeds.

It’s these seeds that would become the pumpkin that you find in a Libby’s can today. Unlike the classic field pumpkin which we all know for being scary on doorsteps in Halloween (the Cucurbita Pepo for all you nerds), Libby’s Pumpkin only comes from one proprietary pumpkin strand: The Dickinson pumpkin.

While You Are Ringing In The Summer, Don't Forget To Remember The Importance Of What We Have Off For.

Home of the free because of the brave.

"The American flag does not fly because the wind moves it. It flies from the last breath of each solider who died protecting it."

On this present day in America, we currently have over 1.4 million brave men and women actively listed in the armed forces to protect and serve our country.

Currently there is an increased rate of 2.4 million retiree's from the US military

Approximately, there has been over 3.4 million deaths of soldiers fighting in wars.

Every single year, everyone look's forward to Memorial Day Weekend, a weekend where beaches become overcrowded, people fire up them grills for a fun sunny BBQ, simply an increase of summer activities, as a "pre-game" before summer begins.

Many American's have forgot the true definition of why we have the privilege to celebrate Memorial Day.

In simple terms, Memorial Day is a day to pause, remember, reflect and honor the fallen who died protecting and serving for everything we are free to do today.

Thank you for stepping forward, when most would have stepped backwards.

Thank you for the times you missed with your families, in order to protect mine.

Thank you for involving yourself, knowing that you had to rely on faith and the prayers of others for your own protection.

Thank you for being so selfless, and putting your life on the line to protect others, even though you didn't know them at all.

Thank you for toughing it out, and being a volunteer to represent us.

Thank you for your dedication and diligence.

Without you, we wouldn't have the freedom we are granted now.

I pray you never get handed that folded flag. The flag is folded to represent the original thirteen colonies of the United States. Each fold carries its own meaning. According to the description, some folds symbolize freedom, life, or pay tribute to mothers, fathers, and children of those who serve in the Armed Forces.

As long as you live, continuously pray for those families who get handed that flag as someone just lost a mother, husband, daughter, son, father, wife, or a friend. Every person means something to someone.

Most Americans have never fought in a war. They've never laced up their boots and went into combat. They didn't have to worry about surviving until the next day as gunfire went off around them. Most Americans don't know what that experience is like.

However, some Americans do as they fight for our country every day. We need to thank and remember these Americans because they fight for our country while the rest of us stay safe back home and away from the war zone.

Never take for granted that you are here because someone fought for you to be here and never forget the people who died because they gave that right to you.

So, as you are out celebrating this weekend, drink to those who aren't with us today and don't forget the true definition of why we celebrate Memorial Day every year.

"…And if words cannot repay the debt we owe these men, surely with our actions we must strive to keep faith with them and with the vision that led them to battle and to final sacrifice."

The History of Pumpkin Pie

What is a traditional Thanksgiving dinner without a healthy serving of pumpkin pie? This classic dessert is so aligned with holidays that you may even think the pilgrims feasted on slices of this treat during the first Thanksgiving.

What is a traditional Thanksgiving dinner without a healthy serving of pumpkin pie? This classic dessert is so aligned with holidays that you may even think the pilgrims feasted on slices of this treat during the first Thanksgiving. Although pumpkins were present when the pilgrims and natives dined together in 1621, their preparation of this squash is much different that how we’ll serve it next week.

Most scholars agree that pumpkins originated in South America more than 7,000 years ago. Over time a variety of squashes, including pumpkin, became native to the New England area. Native Americans of the region most likely prepared pumpkin in slices and roasted it directly on hot coals.

The English pilgrims brought some pumpkin recipes with them on the Mayflower, and although their cooking technique created a dish sweeter than the native recipe, it is still not the pumpkin pie we look forward to after a Thanksgiving feast. The pilgrims’ recipe was a makeshift pumpkin pudding&mdashthe pumpkin was hollowed and filled with milk, honey and spices before baking in hot ashes.

Recipes that resemble pumpkin pie as we know it didn’t develop until the 1650s in France. Famed 17th century chef Francois Pierre la Varenne developed a recipe for a &ldquopompion&rdquo torte, complete with a pastry crust. English recipes decades later followed la Varenne’s example, but also included a variety of dried fruits, currants and nuts in the pumpkin filling. Nearly 150 years after the first pumpkin pie recipe was developed in France a dessert dish strikingly similar to modern pumpkin pie was created in 1796 in the United States.

Why Pie History?

Cox told us he explores food history because it is one of the most enduring cultural traits. Food preferences will linger for three or four generations as a central part of family ritual and family life.

“It can be more revealing about our attitudes, our hopes and fears, than anything we ever write,” Cox said.

As a historian, Cox said he hesitates to claim New Englanders eat more pie than people in other regions of the United States. But pie culture is definitely deeper in certain parts of the country, he said, and, ‘pie is quite deep here.’

New England’s pie culture does differ from the rest of the United States because it has more of a balance between the savory – the chicken, the turkey or the clam pie – and the sweet – the apple, the pumpkin, the squash, the blueberry or the cream pies.

Cox found it hard to pin down regional pie-eating differences within New England. An apple pie on Cape Cod isn’t that different from an apple pie elsewhere, with the exception of Central Massachusetts. There, Cox said, apple pie is more likely to have raisins in it, something he considers an abomination. And Northern New Englanders are more apt to eat apple pie with cheese.

There are some ethnic variations – Franco-Americans have their tourtiere, Italian-Americans have their ricotta pie and Portuguese-Americans have their custard tarts. Clam pie is stronger on Cape Cod than elsewhere.

In his quest to record pie history, Cox has only found maple pie in Vermont.

Origin of Pumpkin

Though information about where pumpkins originated remains largely unclear, they have been observed growing wild in parts of northeastern Mexico. The earliest known record of human domestication and consumption of pumpkins comes from Mexico, where remnants of seeds and squashes have been found in the Oaxaca valley and Tamaulipas dwellings - perhaps dating as far back as 8750 BCE and 7000 BCE, respectively. Additional findings in Missouri (4000 BCE) and Mississippi (1400 BCE) are also relevant.

After domestication, pumpkins were transported to other parts of the world by boat during the colonial era. The earliest evidence of pumpkins in Europe, for example, can be found in a prayer book made for Anne de Bretagne, the duchess of Brittany, between 1503 and 1508. Once domesticated, the crop produced larger fruit, developing more colors and sizes, compared with the wild plant.

A Brief and Buttery History of Libby’s Pumpkin Pie Recipe

Every year, food magazines will attempt to reinvent Thanksgiving dinner. We are not exempt. Wrap your turkey in bacon! Stuffing fried rice! Sprinkle MSG in your gravy! And so on. But let me tell you a secret: We all know that when it comes to pumpkin pie, most people are making the exact same recipe year after year, and that’s the one on the back of Libby’s canned pumpkin.

The Libby’s recipe is so widely circulated that you may not even know you’re using it. It goes something like this: blend pumpkin filling, evaporated milk, eggs, ginger, cloves, cinnamon, sugar, and a pinch of salt, pour into a pie shell, bake for close to an hour. Let cool to room temperature. The finished pie is moist (but not tooooo moist), smooth (with just a liiittle texture), and tickles you—but doesn’t hit you in the face—with warming spices. It’s the mild, silky, whipped-cream-dolloped coda you crave after a hefty Thanksgiving meal. Sound familiar?

The truth is, Libby’s version may not be the most interesting or most creative recipe. There are thousands more on the internet. You could whip out the kitchen torch to brûlée your pumpkin pie. Add miso to it, go crazy. But Libby’s is the one that many people consider to be the gold standard for how pumpkin pie is supposed to taste. Myself included.

The first time I had pumpkin pie was at my school cafeteria when I was about eight years old. It was the Libby’s version. The homogeneous texture was weird and alarming at first. How did they get it so smooth? The barely-there taste of ginger and cinnamon made me wonder why not just add a little more? But I couldn’t stop eating it. From then on I made sure that pumpkin pie was added to my family’s Thanksgiving rotation, which up until then consisted of apple pie and shrikhand, a dessert of strained cardamom-flavored yogurt. Slowly, pumpkin pie outstripped all the other sweets in popularity. I ate it for breakfast the next morning. And many mornings after that. I was obsessed, but specifically with the Libby’s version.

But imagine if these were pies.

Photo by Laura Murray, prop styling by Allie Wist

Libby’s was started as Libby, McNeill & Libby, a canned meat company in Chicago, in the late 1800s. That’s right—canned meat. The company brought canned pumpkin into its fold in the late 1920s, when it purchased Dickinson & Co. of Eureka, Illinois. Pumpkin, in general, was having a moment, conjuring “saccharine-sweet images of rural New England life” during a time when people were moving into cities, says Cindy Ott, a professor at the University of Delaware and the author of Pumpkin: The Curious History of an American Icon. Pumpkin pie had become synonymous with the pumpkin thanks to the dish’s growing association with Thanksgiving. That association started around 1827, when magazine editor Sarah Josepha Hale published a novel, Northwood, which listed pumpkin pie as part of the traditional Thanksgiving meal. This was also due to a popular pumpkin pudding recipe published in Amelia Simmons’s 1796 American Cookery, one of the first American cookbooks. Her pudding called for pumpkin, milk, molasses, eggs, ginger, and allspice.

Libby’s hired a recipe developer named Mary Hale Martin to start a home economics department and promote recipes for its various canned products. The pumpkin pie recipe that Libby's and Martin were to make famous first appeared on the back of a Libby’s can, in 1929. It was quite straightforward: canned pumpkin, eggs, milk, sugar, cloves, allspice, and cinnamon (there’s no recipe for a crust it simply says “pour into a pie pan lined with pastry”). In the 1950s the recipe was adjusted to the version most people know today, with the additions of dried ginger and evaporated milk, which cuts the cooking time and brings a more intense dairy flavor.

Before Libby’s recipe, pumpkin pie was considered a labor of love. It required breaking down, seeding, roasting, and mashing the gourd. Canned pumpkin existed well before Libby’s, but it was the company’s decision to pair this recipe with its low-moisture canned pumpkin (for perfectly-creamy-not-soggy pies) that was a game changer. Suddenly pumpkin pie was a dessert anyone could whip up in an hour.

Soon the recipe was everywhere, becoming a fixture on the can and in widely circulated magazine advertisements. (It likely helped that in 1971 the company was acquired by Nestle, which had a huge reach in grocery store aisles.) These days if you Google “pumpkin pie recipe,” the results that pop up are either the Libby’s recipe or versions that are slight modifications of it. Libby’s now produces 85 percent of canned pumpkin in the United States.

I recently put out a call on social media asking for everyone’s favorite back-of-the-package Thanksgiving recipe. Almost everyone responded with the Libby’s pumpkin pie.

“It seems to be the perfect recipe,” Greg Bair, a Dallas-based lawyer tells me. “If you add or take away from it, it is not as good.”

Unlike other Thanksgiving staples, when it comes to pumpkin pie, people don’t want anything but the classic—the Libby’s version. My family’s Thanksgiving abides by our Indian-ish philosophy, with spice-heavy fall dishes matar paneer, aloo gobhi, and a fenugreek-y sweet-and-sour butternut squash. But when a certain family member who was in charge of desserts tried to propose a pumpkin pie seasoned with cardamom and maple syrup, there was a full-on riot. We love cardamom. We love maple syrup. But neither are welcome in our pumpkin pie. We don’t want the heady spices. We don’t need any of that earthy sweetness. We know the best pumpkin pies have rustic gourd flavor front and center.

“People expect pumpkin pie to taste like the Libby’s recipe because that shaped the Platonic ideal of a pumpkin pie,” explains Marilyn Naron, an illustrator and former pastry chef (and self-identifying Libby’s pumpkin pie fan) based in Lawrence, Kansas. “If you bite into a pumpkin pie that doesn’t taste like that, it will inevitably feel a bit disappointing.”

Let’s not forget that the recipe continues to be one of the easiest dishes you can put together for a Thanksgiving table. Faced with cooking a meal that can seem daunting and complicated, it’s comforting for less experienced cooks to know there’s at least one element that’s a sure win.


  1. Grenville

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  2. Kumi

    You are not right. I'm sure. I can prove it.

  3. Wait

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