What is an open city?

What is an open city?

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During World War 2 Rome was declared to be an "open city" but I do not know what this means. What rules are there in an open city? Who controls it or is it neutral? I want to know what happens when a city is declared an "open city".

If you google Open City, you'll find the answer

In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that they have abandoned all defensive efforts.

The attacking armies of the opposing military will then be expected not to bomb or otherwise attack the city, but simply to march in. The concept aims at protecting the historic landmarks and civilians who dwell in the city from an unnecessary battle.

An open city is not contested; the city government declares that they have no intention of resisting the occupier.

Basically that the city has abandoned defense. It was done because of the history of the city and the desire not to have it bombed.


Roam free: A history of open-world gaming

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Open-world video games bear the impossible promise—offering compelling, enjoyable open-endedness and freedom within the constraints of what is, by necessity of the medium, an extremely limited set of possible actions. These games provide a list of (predominantly violent) verbs that's minuscule in comparison to the options you would face in identical real-life situations. Yet, we can't get enough of them.

In spite of their many obvious failings or limitations, we've been losing ourselves within open worlds for some 30-odd years. Today, nearly every big release is set in an open world. We delight in their unspoken possibility and shrug at their quirks.

Those quirks, by the way, are not merely a consequence of current technology. The oddities of modern open-world games have origins in the games that came before. We're not talking about just the earlier Grand Theft Autos—even the first GTA built on the foundations set by more than a decade of prior open-world games.

Further Reading

Before we get started, a quick note on definitions: open-world game design exists on a spectrum. Many titles have aspects of it, like Chrono Trigger with its eon-hopping adventure or the Tomb Raider reboot and its capacity for backtracking and exploring unlocked areas of the map. But to really classify a game as open world, it's got to be about freedom. There should be a sense that, within the rules of the game world, you can do anything at any time while freely moving about the space. It's essential for true open-world games to offer the freedom to decide when to do things, which by extension means a freedom to do things other than moving on to the next main story beat. It's admittedly a fuzzy line, but it's not worth fretting over difficult fringe cases. As with all previous game genre histories on Ars, this adventure is more about highlighting the games that are notable, in some sense, to the evolution of the genre at large.

The end of Bedrock City

Visit with Fred Flintstone in Bedrock City. (Photo: Richard Maack)

But first Bedrock City must go, and that includes the Flintstones and the Rubbles, the rock stars of the pun-filled prehistoric park.

Bedrock City was most known for its pastel-hued buildings seemingly built of carved blocks of stone. Since it opened in the 1970s, generations of children have taken seats inside the Bedrock schoolhouse, pretended to be locked up in the Bedrock jail and watched the cartoon on an unending loop in the Bedrock theater.

The highlight was sliding down the tail of a brontosaurus long before scientists declared there really was no such dinosaur. Those same scientists would argue Stone Age people didn’t live in slab houses or drive foot-powered cars, but the countless families who spend countless hours in Bedrock wouldn’t care.

What is Celebration: The history of a community developed by Disney

Celebration, Florida is an experiment in community planning called “New Urbanism.” It was often called “Disney’s Town of Celebration” in its early days but it’s not actually a town and it’s no longer owned by the Walt Disney Company.

The census-designated place of Celebration in Osceola County backs up to the Walt Disney World Resort situated to the north of the community.

Despite some similarities with Walt Disney’s vision of a Utopian city he called E.P.C.O.T., Celebration was dreamed up as Walt Disney World, Walt Disney Imagineering and The Disney Development Company took a good look at the roughly 27,000 acres in Osceola and Orange counties Walt and his team secretly purchased in the late 1960s.

By the late ’80s and into the ’90s, Walt Disney World was undergoing a building boom that included the addition of numerous resort hotels, the Disney-MGM Studios Theme Park, a nightclub district known as Pleasure Island, the Typhoon Lagoon water park and the Disney Vacation Club time-share resort business.

In developing a master plan to manage growth, executives decided the land, largely East of I-4, was not part of the resort’s growth strategy.

The roughly 4,900 acres Celebration sits on was part of Walt Disney World and controlled by Disney’s governmental arm, The Reedy Creek Improvement District until development started. It was de-annexed from Reedy Creek so as not to dilute Disney’s control of the governmental entity, but two Reedy Creek utilities provided power and telecommunications to the “town.” In keeping with Walt Disney World as a whole, about half of the land is permanent nature conservation land.

Disney announced plans for Celebration to the public in 1991 and broke ground “founding” the town in 1994, but the architectural competition for ideas and master-planning happened in 1987. At the time, Disney CEO Michael Eisner was championing the use of high-profile “celebrity” architects across the company, reasoning that it cost roughly the same to build something memorable and creative as something bland. One of those architects, Robert A.M. Stern, developed Celebration’s master plan along with Cooper, Robertson & Partners.

Stern’s firm also developed one of the area’s crucial amenities, Celebration Health, which was part of a then-new trend toward whole-health care with a more spa-like feel. Florida Hospital --now AdventHealth-- developed, runs and has since expanded the hospital.

The community plans also promised an experimental school and state of the art infrastructure linking all homes and businesses digitally.

Crucial to Celebration was the development of “pattern books” that ensure no matter who ultimately built the homes, the community would all be unified in design favoring a “small town” feel with porches in the front and parking in the back. That uniformity also led to numerous criticisms comparing it to the too-good-to-be-true town from the movies “The Stepford Wives” and “The Truman Show.”

The idea caught on with the public enough that Disney actually held a lottery in November of 1995 to decide which families would be the first to buy plots of land and contract to build the first homes. A small preview center showed what they would look like.

According to the Celebration Foundation’s website, the first family moved in to the first village on June 18, 1996. November 12, 1996 is Celebration’s “Founders Day” -- marking the completion of the downtown, which was designed by numerous celebrity architects. Disney sold the downtown to private investors in January 2004.

Celebration was meant to be a place to live and work. An office complex facing U.S. 192, Celebration Place, was announced and built early in the process. Several Disney divisions occupy much of that office space, including the headquarters for Disney Cruise Line.

According to U.S. Census data, roughly 8,540 residents called Celebration home in 2017, with a median income of $83,228 and a median property value of $401,600.

Celebration is considered a relatively low-crime area, with its first murder occurring in 2010. There have been several high-profile lawsuits over the years, largely over building practices used in the homes and management of condos and rental properties.

There are roughly 4,300 homes and condos, six houses of worship, two public grade schools, a Montessori Academy, a branch of Stetson University, a public library, along with shops, hotels and businesses, all linked by more than 40 public parks and miles of walking trails and boardwalks.

AMC History

  • AMC history 1920-1991

1920 Maurice, Edward and Barney Dubinsky purchase the Regent Theatre in Kansas City, Mo.

1961 Stanley Durwood becomes CEO of the company and renames it American Multi-cinema.

1962 AMC opens the world's first multiplex, the Parkway Twin in Kansas City.

1981 AMC becomes the first theatre chain to add cupholder armrests.

1991 Introduces Clip®, a "film strip" character to serve as an ambassador of the brand and its Silence is Golden® program.

1995 AMC opens the world's first megaplex. This innovative destination also inspires AMC to install stadium seating and LoveSeat®-style seating.

2000 AMC co-founds online ticket services to add convenience to even the busiest AMC theatres like Empire 25 in New York City, which is recognized as the busiest theatre in the world.

2002 AMC becomes the first theatre chain to introduce the circuit-wide gift card.

2005 AMC co-founds National CineMedia, which runs all of AMC's preshow entertainment and in-theatre advertising.

2006 AMC expands presence throughout the country with the acquisition of Loews Theatres

2007 AMC partners with IMAX to bring approximately 125 IMAX large-screen digital projection systems to AMC locations around the country.

2008 AMC launches Dine-In Theatres. The concept, which continues to expand throughout the United States, allows guests to order restaurant-style food with the push of a button, from the comfort of their own luxurious movie seat.

2009 AMC partners with Sony and RealD to implement digital and 3D technology.

2009 AMC partners with the Autism Society to launch AMC Sensory Friendly Films nationwide. The program allows children and families to enjoy a movie in a safe, accepting environment that allows talking, yelling, singing and walking around.
AMC opens its first all-recliner seating theatre, AMC Lakewood 12, dubbed "The Miracle of Lakewood".

2010 AMC acquires Kerasotes theatres and expands its presence in the Midwest.

2011 AMC launches its AMC Stubs rewards program, which provides members with new benefits like concessions upgrades and dollars back for every dollar they spend.

2012 AMC is acquired by the Beijing–based Wanda Group, which enables funding to ensure a massive escalation of AMC's world-class amenities, including recliner seating, better sight & sound presentation and MacGuffins bars.

2013 AMC goes public on the New York Stock Exchange. NYSE: AMC

2015 AMC and Dolby partner to create Dolby Cinema at AMC, a premium large format experience that includes Dolby Vision laser projection, Dolby Atmos sound and AMC's comfortable power recliners.
AMC acquires Starplex Cinemas.

2016 AMC announces it will acquire Carmike Cinemas.
AMC acquires Odeon & UCI Cinemas, the largest theatre chain in the UK & Ireland.
AMC adds a free tier to its AMC Stubs program—AMC Insider—to go along with its popular paid tier, AMC Premiere.

Our History

In the midst of the Great Depression, a modest local barber in Greenville, Mich. had a need and saw an opportunity. In an effort to take care of the customers who visited his barbershop, Hendrik Meijer purchased $338.76 worth of merchandise on credit. Together, with his 14-year-old son, Fred, they opened Meijer&rsquos Grocery.

The Depression still lingers, yet Meijer is able to acquire its first shopping carts &ndash the latest in grocery store innovation.

The second Meijer store opens in Cedar Springs, Mich. under the management of Johanna Meijer. By 1945, half of all Meijer team members are women.

Meijer speeds product down the checkout lane with innovative automated conveyer belts &ndash another way Meijer provides faster and better service for customers.

Meijer opens its first &ldquoThrifty Acres,&rdquo a food and general merchandise store that allowed customers to shop for everything they needed in just one trip. It was the birth of the supercenter and the springboard for a concept that would grow into a retail phenomenon.

Grand Rapids area Meijer stores are now open on Sunday, followed by all stores throughout the retail chain in 1976.

Meijer entered the Ohio market.

Many Meijer stores are now open 24-hours-a-day, and the number of stores climbs into the 50's. Most stores are open 364-days-a-year.

Meijer opens the Grape Road-Mishawaka store, marking its first store in Indiana.

The Champaign Meijer marks the retailer's entrace into Illinois later enters the Chicago market in 1999 with the opening of the Bolingbrook store.

Meijer.com is launched on the World Wide Web, and Meijer enters the Kentucky market with its first store opening in Florence.

Meijer unveils its free prescription drug program designed to benefit at least one-half million Meijer customers at all 176 Meijer pharmacies throughout the Midwest.

Meijer launches mPerks, a free digital coupon program to help savvy, deal-seeking shoppers earn discounts without having to cut, print or present a coupon upon checkout.

Meijer celebrates its 50 th anniversary as the original supercenter, and announces its move into dairy production through the new Purple Cow Creamery.

Meijer opens its 200 th store in Swartz Creek, Mich., and opens its first supercenter in the city of Detroit at Woodward Ave. and Eight Mile.

Meijer broke ground on a second store in Detroit at the site of the former Redford High School, and on a new dairy production facility in Tipp City, Ohio. Meijer held its inaugural Meijer LPGA Classic presented by Kraft at Blythefield Country Club that generated more than $600,000 for the Simply Give program.

Meijer enters its sixth state with the opening of four stores in Wisconsin, and acquires Aureus Health Services, a national specialty pharmacy and health services company. The Michigan Historical Commission recognized Meijer for making history on the site of its original &ldquoThrifty Acres&rdquo store with a historical marker on the site of the nation&rsquos first supercenter.

Other districts

Tianhe district, east of the Dongshan area, was created in 1985 from parts of the former eastern suburbs, and it is now considered to be one of the core districts of the central municipality. Its mixed urban and suburban landscapes now include business and shopping centres constructed along with high-rise office and residential buildings. Tianhe Science and Technology Park is home to many businesses engaged in the development of high technology and advanced software. In addition, many of the city’s institutions of higher learning are located in Tianhe. It has been targeted as the city’s new central business district for the 21st century. As part of that, the 103-story Guangzhou International Finance Center office tower opened in 2010 in the southwest part of the district, near the Pearl the 111-story CTF (Chow Tai Fook) Finance Centre, a mixed-use tower, opened nearby in 2016.

South of the Pearl is Haizhu district. It was long characterized by modern residential quarters and large industrial centres, but since the late 1980s a growing number of financial and business firms have established themselves there. Of great significance was the completion in the early 21st century of the first phase of the Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Center (Pazhou Complex) on Pazhou Island in the Pearl River. One of the largest such venues in the world, it hosts Guangzhou’s major trade shows (including the Guangzhou Trade Fair) and has spurred rapid development of Haizhu’s commerce and tourism-related service sectors. Also located in the district are the south campus of Sun Yat-sen University (founded 1924) and the Pearl River (Zhujiang) Film Studio (now called Pearl River Film Group), one of the major film producers in China.

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What is an open city? - History

One of the most lively programs on campus, History at the City College of New York has been crafted to meet the needs of the most voracious history scholar, as well as those students with an interest in a particular era or region. The accomplished faculty has made its own mark in this arena both at the college and throughout the world and prepares students for a wide range of future careers and challenges. Graduates not only represent City College at major higher educational institutions around the country but have gone on to successful careers in a wide range of legal, educational, journalistic, government, medical, entertainment, and other fields.

You can look forward to creative pedagogy in various modes, all while holding true to the essential mandate of history teaching:

To enliven the past and grasp the present through novel discussion, analytical writing, the reading of exciting texts, evaluating images and the exercise of magisterial thinking in our "now" age of creativity, social change, innovation and more.

If ever there were an imperative to revisit the actions of our forebears, the time is now.


Fall and Summer 2021 registration is open! Our course offerings for undergraduate & graduate History, USSO, and WCIV classes are now available. Click here to see the full list.

The History Society's Spring 2021 meeting schedule is available! See the flyer below or click here for more information.

Attention Prospective M.A. Students

For more information about our program, please click on the "Graduate Program" tab at the top of this homepage.

For specific questions, please contact Professor Barbara Naddeo, director of graduate studies, at [email protected] .

To apply to our History M.A. program, see the CCNY Graduate Application portal by clicking here.

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Application Deadline: May 10, 2021

In honor and memory of the late Judith Stein, an esteemed member of the CCNY History Department from 1965 to 2016, the Department will award outstanding BA/MA students scholarships that will cover tuition for up to 3 MA courses in History for the next semester of enrollment.

The Department welcomes applications from students currently enrolled in its BA/MA Program in History who will have completed, or nearly completed, the BA portion of the program by Spring 2021. Successful candidates will demonstrate a commitment to excellence, clarity of purpose in their studies, and financial need.

To apply, students should submit the following materials by May 10, 2021, to Office Admin. Susan Evans, [email protected] (with the subject line “Stein Scholarship”):

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What is an open city? - History

# Welcome to Open Government Data

This website is a project and home of the Working Group on Open Government Data at the Open Knowledge Foundation. To participate in the discussion, join the open-government mailing list.

What is Open Government Data

This site is about open government data. But what is open government data? Open government data means:

  • Data produced or commissioned by government or government controlled entities
  • Data which is open as defined in the Open Definition &ndash that is, it can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone.

Why Open Government Data?

Why should government data be open? There are three main reasons:

  1. Transparency. In a well-functioning, democratic society citizens need to know what their government is doing. To do that, they must be able freely to access government data and information and to share that information with other citizens. Transparency isn’t just about access, it is also about sharing and reuse — often, to understand material it needs to be analyzed and visualized and this requires that the material be open so that it can be freely used and reused.
  2. Releasing social and commercial value. In a digital age, data is a key resource for social and commercial activities. Everything from finding your local post office to building a search engine requires access to data, much of which is created or held by government. By opening up data, government can help drive the creation of innovative business and services that deliver social and commercial value.
  3. Participatory Governance. Much of the time citizens are only able to engage with their own governance sporadically — maybe just at an election every 4 or 5 years. By opening up data, citizens are enabled to be much more directly informed and involved in decision-making. This is more than transparency: it’s about making a full “read/write” society, not just about knowing what is happening in the process of governance but being able to contribute to it.

The Open Data Film

Find out more about what what open government data is and what it is good for by watching our short film

The Open Knowledge Foundation would like to thank everyone who has helped to translate this film. See here for the full list of translators. If you would like to add or edit a translation, please complete the following form

Watch the video: GSD Talks: Richard Sennett, The Open City


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