History of R-5 SS 82 - History

History of R-5 SS 82 - History

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


(Submarine No. 82: dp. 569 (surf.), 680 (subm.); b. 18';dr. 14'B"; s. 13.5 k. (surf.), 10.5 k. (subm.); cpl. 34; a. 1 3", 4 21" tt.; cl. R-l)

R-6 (Submarine No. 82) was laid down 16 October 1917 by the Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quiney, Mass., launched 24 November 1918; sponsored by Miss Margaretta King; and commissioned 15 Aprll 1919, Lt. Comdr. Erie L. Barr in command.

After completion at the Boston Navy Yard, R-6 got underway 28 April 1919 for New London, Conn. where she was assigned to Submarine Division 9 of the Atiantie Fleet. She headed south 4 December for Norfolk and winter exercises with her division in the Gulf of Mexico (21 January-14 April 1920). R-6 later returned to Newport, R.I., 18 May for 4 months of summer training in New England waters. Then as SS-82 (effcetive 17 July) she sailed 13 September for Norfolk and an overhaul that was completed in April 1921.

In company with Cam/len, R-6 was ordered to the Pacific 11 April 1921, transited the Panama Canal 28 May, and arrived 30 June at her new base, San Pedro, Calif. In January 1923 she was used in the filming of the Twentieth Century-Fox motion picture, "The Eleventh Hour," and engaged in war games with the battle fleet in the Gulf of Fonseea (5 February 6 April 1923).

She was transferred 16 July along with Division 9 to Pearl Harbor where she was based for the next 8 years engaged in training and operations with fleet units. R-5 made an enduranee run to Midway in July and August 1924 and in December, during division exercises off Pearl Harbor, rammed R-IB in the after battery room, causing extensive damage to both ships.

R-5 was transferred back to the Atlantic 12 December 1930 with Divisions 9 and 14, transited the Panama Canal 28 January 1931 and arrived at New London 9 February. She was assigned to Division 4 on 1 April and acted as training ship for the Submarine School until sailing 28 April 1932 for Philadelphia, where she decommissioned 30 June 1932.

After recommissioning 19 August 1940, R-5 reported to Division 42 at New London 30 October. She sailed 10 December for the submarine base at Coco Solo, C.Z., where she was assigned patrol duty in the Bay of Panama until returning to New London 31 October 1941. She underwent overhaul and in December relieved S-l on patrol along the Bermuda-New England shipping lanes. Through the U-boat offensives of 1942, she maintained those patrols, operating out of New London and Bermuda, and alternating them with antisubmarine training operations for destroyers and destroyer escorts. Twice during the first part of the year she made eontset with U-boats and once, 10 February, fired torpedoes, but none found its mark.

From 1943 into 1945, R-5 continued to rotate between New London and Bermuda. After the end of World War II, she was ordered to Portsmouth, N.H., for inactivation. Arriving on 6 September, she decommissioned on the 14th and was struck from the Navy list 11 October 1945. On 22 August 1946, R-5 was sold for scrap to John J. Duane, Quiney, Mass.

The last slave ship survivor and her descendants identified

At age two, she was among the youngest captives on the Clotilda. Now her living grandchildren are learning of her life and legacy.

She was just two years old when she arrived in Mobile, Alabama, in July 1860, a captive aboard the infamous Clotilda, the last known slave ship to bring Africans to America. She died in 1940 at the age 82, making her the last known survivor of the last known slave ship. Her name was Matilda McCrear.

Only a year ago, headlines announced that another Clotilda captive—Redoshi, aka Sally Smith—was discovered to be the longest-lived survivor. Before her, the titleholder was Cudjo Lewis. Now, after months of research, I’ve determined that McCrear outlasted them both.

McCrear’s granddaughter, Eva Berry, now 92, remembers her as a dark-skinned woman with long hair. “She talked to me about her mama and her sisters on the ship,” she recalls, “how they arrived in Mobile and then had to leave when they were bought.”

Her grandson, Johnny Crear, 83, told me that his forebears described her as a “rambunctious lady” and talked about the “marks” on her face.

Those facial scars offer clear evidence of McCrear’s origin, says Olabiyi Babalola Yai, an expert in African cultures. They also reveal her given name.

“She was a Yoruba, as her ilà—or ethnic marks of the àbàjà type—show,” Yai says. And the marks “mean that her oriki, or name, was Àbáké—'born to be loved by all.’” That was, poignantly, her parents’ wish for a baby who would soon be thrown into inconceivable misery.

A brief history of r/ertugrul

As someone who has been lurking here and on r/Ertugrulmemes since Feb 2020 I thought about making an account just for this post and background info for any newcomers. Here is a history of this sub.

Feb 2020: Quiet and posts around every few days. Not much happens

March 2020: Still quiet. r/Ertugrulmemes is nothing but a bunch of name puns.

April 2020: Still nothing much, occasional memes on here.

Let's fastforward a tad bit as nothing is happening.

July 2020: Kuruluş: Osman 2 speculation posts and theories

September 2020: Arrival of many active and iconic sub members. Halime and Ilbilge competitive posts are through the roof.

October 2020: The arrival of a new moderator EnginAltan proves good for the subreddit alongside user flairs and subreddit renovation. Many believe this new moderator is what brought this sub to be more well known amongst many fans.

November 2020: The arrival of a new member Titus-alp sees an increase in the subreddit's daily posts and activity.

November 2020: The subreddit's first troll approach which spread through and was heard by members of the official Ertugrul servers on discord. Went on for a few days before the troll was banned.

December 2020: Ulubilge memes boost and are everywhere on this sub. They are then banned because of their frequency and annoyance to the moderators.

December: This place starts becoming more active and posts start increasing in number largely. More recognisable members are joining.

January 2021: This place has achieved a huge milestone of 1,000 members.

January 2021: Titus-alp is banned. There are many rumours as to why this happened. Later trolls the subreddit and leaves.

January 2021: Huge drama unravels between a few certain subreddit members on this sub such as EnginAltan, SakinaJafari and a user known back then as reddit_dicorder due to a group chat incident of some sort. Posts regarding this incident are then uploaded on to the subreddit.

January 2021: EnginAltan is no longer a moderator and his account is banned. There are many speculations as to why this happened.

February 2021: Annailation101's activity increases on this sub and he is now one of the main users, posting almost every day.

February 2021: 2 new moderators are elected, taro giant and GoldenStar64

March 2020: GoldenStar64 abruptly deletes his account, leaving only 2 mods for the job. The reasons for his account deletion are unknown.

April 2020: Increase in activity on this sub, there are more posts now than ever before. More users are joining and more posts fill the sub, sometimes around 7-8 daily posts.

Americans Sit More Than Anytime In History And It's Literally Killing Us

Everyone knows that being sedentary is bad for your health. It’s not the act of sitting itself that will kill you, but the repercussions of moving too little. But, few individuals know just how bad it can really be, or the cascade of problems that happen to your body from head to toe when we live a sedentary lifestyle – whether at a desk, in a car or tv binging on the couch. According to the Mayo Clinic, analysis of 13 studies concluded that, “sitting time and activity levels found in those who sat for more than 8 hours a day with no physical activity had a risk of dying similar to the risks of dying posed by obesity and smoking.”

That’s terrible news given that the average American adult sits more than at any other time in history. Sedentary jobs have increased 83% since 1950 according to the American Heart Association. And, Johns Hopkins contends that, “Physically active jobs now make up less than 20% of the U.S. workforce, down from roughly half of jobs in 1960.”

Further, by sitting for long periods of time, we become at greater risk of obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stroke and heart disease – all of which contribute to brain troubles as we age. In fact, people with the most sedentary lifestyles are more than twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease than their active peers. And a 2011 study concluded that insulin responses declined after just one day of prolonged sitting, increasing the likelihood of developing diabetes.

While the most common injuries occur in the muscles, tendons and ligaments in the neck and back, the negative impact of a sedentary lifestyle can be problematic head to toe. Here’s what you need to know about top-down potential damage.

Head : The more one sits, the thinner regions of the brain associated with memory tend to be. Human brains need a constant supply of blood and oxygen to function properly. And movement helps circulate a fresh supply to keep the brain performing in peak condition. By sitting for long periods of time, our blood circulation slows, and so too does our brain function. This can lead to lowered cognition and long-term effects for aging brains, but increased rates of depression and anxiety . Not only from being in a sedentary environment, but the sheer lack of benefits that come from being physically active.

Neck : When using computers, tablets and phones, we crane our necks in awkward positions, often leaning into the screen. This is especially true if one sits at a desk for hours at a time. This puts unnatural stress on vertebrae, leading to pain and even worse posture as we compensate for that pain.

Shoulders : Being seated while typing – particularly slouching – can put significant stress on your shoulders. Pain in the trapezius area is not uncommon for those who sit for long periods of time and extend their arms for driving or typing.

Back: Poor posture while sitting compresses spinal disks, often leading to chronic back pain and worse, premature degeneration of discs. It also increases the likelihood of getting a herniated disk due to the hardening of collagen that supports ligaments and tendons. The way we sit – including the way we shift our weight – also puts pressure on the ischial tuberosity (the pelvic bone you sit on) causing pain and in some cases bursitis. Because spines that are inactive become inflexible, they are also more likely to get injured doing minimal tasks.

Abdomen : Sitting means that your muscles are resting. This is particularly true for abdominal muscles when slumped in a chair. Moving, standing, and even sitting with a straight back can do wonders for engaging abs. When not flexed, fat accumulation and muscle deterioration occur around the front and sides of the waist.

Hips : Sitting means that you extend your hip flexors less often, causing them over time to shorten. This can limit your range of motion. Some research even suggests that this is a primary influence on falls in our aging population.

Glutes and Legs : Use it or lose it is the motto. Your most powerful muscles must get used to be maintained otherwise they atrophy. Going long periods of time without moving means that blood circulation slows, causing everything from swollen legs to varicose veins to the more problematic deep vein thrombosis .

Bones : Osteoporosis is often thought of as a problem for the elderly. A weakening of the bones that leads to falls and easily obtained fractures. However, research suggests that the average age of onset for osteoporosis is decreasing, and the number of hip fractures is increasing directly related to increased hours of sitting per day.

What Can You Do?

Although everyday non-exercise activities like walking, standing and fidgeting burn calories, that energy expenditure - known as non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) – is not enough to offset the harm done by a sedentary lifestyle.

Experts recommend spending time each day doing physical activity, particularly during the day, inside the work environment. Taking frequent breaks to move are important during any work period of sedentary behavior. The Mayo Clinic suggests daily activities such as getting up every 30 minutes, standing while doing a call or talking with colleagues, and even standing for periods of time while watching television.

There are easy-to-find desk-based exercises that can be done for those in an office for long periods of time, and many online videos of leg stretches for people who sit all day. Additionally, neck and back pain can be alleviated using a series of ergonomic tips for sitting posture and screen placement.

The Hate-Fueled Rise of r/The_Donald—and Its Epic Takedown

To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories.

To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories.

On March 22, 2017, at 2:40 pm local time, a terrorist attacked pedestrians on Westminster Bridge in London with a truck, killing five people and injuring at least 50. Thirty-one hours later, a Reddit user named TrumpBeatsHillary wrote a post on the forum page r/The_Donald. Its title was “But hey, it wasn’t all bad. In the end a Muslim was shot.”

The post itself was a political cartoon of sorts. It depicted a stylized Westminster bridge covered in dead and bleeding bodies, with a distant truck trailing more blood behind it. Two corpses had signs: One read “Fuck Trump” another was a rainbow flag. In block letters at the top, the image was captioned: “BRIDGES NOT WALLS.”

The post’s title referred to the attacker, Khalid Masood, who was shot and killed by London police. TrumpBeatsHillary boasted a “flair” (a small image near the username) of Pepe the Frog in riot gear brandishing a gun. Commenters turned out to express their support. “Now just add in a Muslim woman stepping over one of the bodies,” commented user 2termtrump—or /u/2termtrump in the site’s shorthand. The gleeful anti-Muslim banter only grew from there.

Within eight hours, the post attracted 9,519 upvotes and 506 comments, sending it to the top of The_Donald. Within 16 hours, around the time the post crossed the 10,000-upvote threshold, The_Donald’s volunteer moderators added a photograph of President Donald Trump driving a truck, grinning widely and looking excited, to the side of the page. Below the image, the forum’s rules were listed. They included:

Rule III: No Racism/Anti-Semitism

Rule VI: This is a forum for supporters of Trump ONLY

Rule X: Please do not behave in a way outside of this forum that would reflect poorly on it.

Flouting those rules was routine. In the week before the bridge attack, The_Donald’s top posts included one titled, “5 refugees rape a 7 year old girl in Hamburg Germany. anyone who said refugees welcome invited this.” They included “Sadiq Khan- Terror attacks are ‘part and parcel of living in a big city’. MEANWHILE IN TOKYO, (the largest city in the world) has no terror attacks and no Muslims! Coincidence? I think not!” They included “David Seaman to be SUICIDED for EXPOSING PEDOGATE. COPY AND BLAST THIS EVERYWHERE.”

Since mid-2016, when The_Donald—or “T_D,” a subsection of the massive social site Reddit.com—came into its own, posts like these made the forum the most notorious in the history of a website with a fair number of skeletons in its closet. By March 2017, when these posts were made, the page’s membership had swelled to more than 350,000 members. It was to double that and more, nearing 800,000 subscribers, before—on June 29, 2020—Reddit’s staff banned the subreddit, and it vanished from the site’s pages for good. (Advance Publications, which owns WIRED’s publisher, Condé Nast, is a Reddit shareholder.)

In the five years of its existence, the subreddit played host to Russian propaganda, launched memes and stories parroted by Trump and his campaign, conducted oppo research on behalf of the president, and harassed (and was harassed by) hundreds of people around the internet. Major media organizations have covered the page again and again. But while Reddit changed its rules and rewrote its algorithms to stop T_D (and other pages) from dominating the site, it resisted banning it. Only now, in the wake of half a decade of online protest and justification after justification by Reddit staff all the way up to CEO Steve Huffman, has that resistance collapsed.

The_Donald’s banishment comes at a cultural inflection point that’s already produced double-digit polling swings on police brutality and Black Lives activism (against and for, respectively). Reddit has been swept along. On June 5, the company’s cofounder, Alexis Ohanian (the husband of Serena Williams), stepped down from the company’s board and urged Reddit to replace him with a black candidate. Reddit did so, naming Michael Seibel, CEO of the startup funding venture Y Combinator. Huffman, who famously said in 2018 that racism was not against the site’s rules (later walking that back), wrote that day that past decisions by Reddit had “eroded our effectiveness in combating hate and racism on Reddit,” and he vowed change.

Three days later, on June 8, a huge collection of the volunteers Reddit relies on to keep its site running (”moderators” in the site’s parlance) came together to sign an open letter to the company, demanding that it act swiftly against hateful subreddits and add a site-wide policy “against racism, slurs, and hate speech.” (I myself am a longtime moderator.) Volunteers representing subreddits totaling 200 million users signed the letter Ohanian tweeted it. On June 29, Reddit announced that it would indeed change its rules to include such prohibitions. That was the day r/The_Donald was banned.

So, too, does T_D’s collapse add a chapter to the unending debate around the role that social giants play in shaping and policing political discourse. Spurred on by the outcry surrounding widespread Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, Reddit has already tracked and banned suspicious accounts for years. But like Facebook, Twitter, and other sites that began pulling such content recently, it has been circumspect on stickier questions involving homegrown misinformation and bigotry. Like its peer sites, it long declined to directly ban or remove much incorrect information posted by its users—in most cases, it passed the buck to its volunteers, who make rules for their own sections of the site, telling them to outlaw such content if they so chose.

Though Reddit now has its clearer rules against hate, its policies on misinformation remain foggy at best and downright absent at worst. In this, it joins nearly every large social media company. These questions almost certainly lack an easy answer, but on Reddit—usually not the first name that comes to mind when such issues are discussed, given its rivals’ presence at a new round of congressional hearings—it’s playing out in dramatic fashion with The_Donald’s ban.

As Huffman put it, “These questions aren’t hypothetical for us.”

QUESTION 1: How did r/The_Donald take off?

Taylor didn’t like Donald Trump when they first visited r/The_Donald.

“I read somewhere else on Reddit where Trump was planning to do a rally,” says Taylor, who would eventually become a The_Donald moderator. “People were talking about reserving tickets and just turning their back or not showing up with the intention of making it so people interested wouldn’t be able to attend. I thought that was wrong.”

So Taylor—whose name here, like that of all five T_D moderators interviewed for this piece, is not their real one—created a new Reddit account to post a link to the rally. At the time, T_D had just over 1,000 subscribers and only two moderators. Like every subreddit, its moderators were volunteers, not part of Reddit’s paid staff.

The subreddit had existed for just under four months. It described itself in rather neutral terms as “following the news related to Donald Trump during his presidential run.” On October 20, the post at the top of the subreddit was a sober(ish) policy breakdown. Comments included arguments on the specifics of Trump’s immigration platform: “He’s missing a great opportunity by focusing on building abstract immigration Walls, and not boasting what a great job he could do rebuilding this countries [sic] crumbling infrastructure.”

At the time, Trump led the expansive GOP primary field alongside Ben Carson, who narrowly trailed him in national polls. There were murmurings about his success, but he was widely predicted to flame out. Subreddits for Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio had already existed on Reddit for years. The subreddit for Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders had 124,000 subscribers by October 16.

But on Reddit, as in life, something about then-candidate Trump was different. On a site with millions of subreddits—currently 2.2 million, according to Reddit tracker RedditMetrics.com—different is big. “I think a lot of people got into this organically in the same sort of way,” Taylor says. After the October rally that brought Taylor to T_D, Trump tweeted “You Can’t Stump the Trump, vol. 4,” the latest example of a running meme irreverently celebrating Trump’s ability to deflect or ignore difficult questions and criticisms and to bully his foes. “And I was like, ‘What is he doing?’” Taylor says. This was a different kind of politician. Taylor was intrigued: “It just kind of grew from there.”

On a long road trip, Taylor shared the video with their husband. Taylor says the couple appreciated Trump’s apparent sense of humor. “We streamed a lot of those videos on that drive.”

By mid-December 2015, the subreddit’s subscriber base had doubled, and on December 21 it became one of the 10,000 biggest on the platform. That month, Trump called for banning all Muslims from traveling to the United States. Posts on the subreddit defended the proposal as “not fascist and probably not unconstitutional.” The day after his proposal, Trump led New Hampshire polling rival Rubio by 32 percent to 14 percent in the statewide running. Rubio’s subreddit, r/marco_rubio, floundered at a few hundred subscribers.

The day that poll came out, December 8, The_Donald’s moderators—mods, as they are known on Reddit—noticed a spike in their daily viewership. Their unique viewers, usually around one or two hundred per hour, spiked to more than 2,000 per hour. The mods thought they knew why. Users from the r/Politics subreddit, a massive forum with a December 2015 total of 3.1 million users, had found out about T_D. Now they were flocking to it, often harassing and downvoting the regulars. It was among the first of many such incidents over the next four and a half years.

T_D moderator u/NYPD-32, then one of five volunteers on the page, made a post calling the visitors out.

TITLE: “The Great /r/The_Donald Invasion”

POST: “When /r/politics sends their people they aren’t sending their best. They’re losers, they’re Reddit TOS violators, some of them I assume may be good people.

The backlash from the new arrivals was swift and sustained.

REPLY BY u/InitiumNovum: There needs to be a total and complete shut down of libtard /r/Politics users entering this subreddit.

Yet there were also a fair number of positive comments, both about the volunteer moderators and “the admins,” or administrators, Reddit’s paid staff who run the site’s deeper features. u/NYPD-32 wrote that the admins had been “receptive and helpful” in dealing with the brigade.

COMMENT BY u/TRUMPTRUMPTRUMPTRUMP: Admins, wonderful people! Do a great job, high energy people.

When Redditors or their communities misbehave, the site’s paid administrators are the highest court. Volunteers such as T_D’s moderators have substantial power within their fiefs but can do nothing beyond them. The admins, meanwhile, can see everything and do anything. December 2015 marked one of the first interactions between the staff and The_Donald. Like that day’s battle between T_D and r/politics, it was not to be the last.

Reddit today employs just under 700 people. In 2016, as The_Donald began to emerge on the sitewide scene, the company staff stood at under 100, and in an interview with WIRED, CEO Steve Huffman says he wrote some of the site’s early 2016 announcements himself.

No wonder, then, that Huffman was aware firsthand of T_D’s growth. “They were a little dysfunctional,” Huffman says of the T_D moderators, who first received disciplinary messages from the staff in April 2016. He says it was difficult to decide on how to handle T_D—or even to know when its users were for real.

“In the early days of The_Donald—I wasn’t a user myself, so pardon me for this being a little fuzzy—it was like, half troll users saying ridiculous things as if they were Donald Trump supporters, and half actual Donald Trump supporters,“ Huffman says. “I think if you’ve lived in America over the last four years, that’s actually not as far-fetched as it sounds. Not being able to distinguish between parody and satire and reality was actually a truth that we lived.”

In 2016, the “policy team” at Reddit consisted of Huffman and his general counsel. He says there were often debates about the subreddit among the site’s staff, debates which he says “evolved” as the subreddit gained prominence.

We can make an educated guess about what was said in those debates. Over time, Reddit, like many other institutions, gradually stepped up its responses to Trump’s rhetoric. Perhaps everyone at Reddit was united behind this slower response, but it seems more likely that internal division existed over when and how much to censure T_D. When asked what specifically came up in those years of debates, a Reddit spokesperson called Huffman’s statements “self-explanatory” and declined to give further details.

But, as Huffman says, Reddit’s early vacillations will indeed sound familiar to anyone who followed reactions to Trump and his campaign as it won primary after primary down the 2016 stretch to the general election. Was this a new normal? Was it real? And why did so many people seem to like it? Behind closed doors in its California offices, Reddit watched these questions unfold in real time, with its platform playing home to the debate—and fueling it. Huffman emphasizes Reddit’s commitment to political discourse, pointing to the r/Politics subreddit’s ties to the very earliest days of the site.

“Political speech on Reddit, as it is in our country, is sacred“ Huffman says. “I think it’s among the most important speech there is. The_Donald was, in one dimension, a large political community that represented the views of many Americans. That’s something that we weighed quite heavily.”

As a result, the admins were reluctant to shut down conversation on T_D entirely, even as the subreddit branched out from discourse to hate.

“Over the years, we’ve adapted our policies … we’ve changed the technology, we’ve tried working with the moderators, we’ve replaced moderators, we’ve tried all sorts of things,” Huffman says.

He adds, “Some tactics [were] more successful than others, but ultimately none to the extent that we needed.”

Soon, anti-T_D protests on the site began to emerge. In September 2015, the subreddit r/EnoughTrumpSpam was created, and by June 2016 it was the fastest-growing page on Reddit. Other subreddits, including those for political candidates and meta commentary on the site itself, joined in the critique. “If we knew everything we know now, The_Donald wouldn’t have existed in the way that it existed,” Huffman says. “But we had to work our way there.”

Huffman says he did recognize one thing about The_Donald early on, though: Its success was not an accident, and its moderators (dysfunctional or not) had a gift—one shared by candidate Trump himself. “That community,” he says, “was expert at not being technically against the rules.”

On June 12, 2016, Omar Mateen entered the Pulse nightclub in Orlando, Florida, with a semi-automatic rifle and opened fire, killing 49 people. The main forum for news and discussion of the shooting on Reddit was r/The_Donald. It was another turning point for the subreddit.

Since its conflict with r/Politics in December of the year before, T_D had exploded in size and activity. By June 11, it had 144,000 subscribers. This growth came because the page was increasingly visible—a fact that T_D’s mods well understood, as they were about to demonstrate.

T_D’s moderators were, in many ways, outstandingly skilled. They now set themselves to make T_D visible, with results unlike any other Reddit forum had hitherto attained.

Some quick context: Reddit users subscribe to the subreddits they want to see on their homepage, the same way you follow people on Twitter and like pages on Facebook. Unlike these sites, though, Reddit has a page you can visit to see a sampling of the content from every part of the site, whether you follow it or not. That page is r/all, which measures posts from nearly every subreddit—all 2.2 million—and displays the top ones according to a point system. Posts that reach r/all have, by definition, broken out of the normal conventions of Reddit’s labyrinthian subsections and have a chance to be seen by anyone perusing r/all.

T_D’s moderators were looking for a way to game the system and force T_D onto r/all every day.

The mods realized that a key lay in the “sticky” system, by which moderators could pin a post at the top of their subreddit indefinitely. The system was meant for announcements, rule changes, upcoming events, and other minutia of day-to-day Redditing. But any thread could be stickied, and stickied threads behaved the same way that any other Reddit thread did: They accrued points by vote, and more points boosted the thread closer to the top of the page. This didn’t typically matter, since a stickied thread was by definition artificially held at the top of its subreddit already. But the mods weren’t trying to make threads visible on The_Donald. They wanted to boost them onto r/all.

T_D’s moderators began to sticky threads unrelated to their rules or announcements. Instead, they promoted especially provocative user-created threads. This tactic quickly proved effective. Before long, T_D was elevating a post or two onto r/all day after day.

Another T_D mod, Alex, says the team kept in close touch not only with which threads were successful, but also how mods could encourage their users to vote on stickied threads and drive them higher in Reddit’s r/all rankings. “We trained our subscribers to upvote and comment in every thread,” Alex says. “That is how we originally gamed the algorithm.” Jessie, a third mod, says T_D’s mods made “repetitive requests” to the user base to vote and boost threads. They used memes, gifs, and jokes to push users to act. It worked.

Often the posts T_D pushed to r/all were provocative: On May 20, 2016, it elevated a conspiracy theory that the Clintons had murdered the husband of sexual assault accuser Kathleen Willey. On June 8, it elevated an article on election rigging from pseudoscientific website TheMindUnleashed. At other times, however, the posts weren’t any more provocative at face value than anything else on Reddit, charged as it was in the midst of a contentious primary election season.

June 12, the day of the Orlando massacre, was such a day. By the titles of several posts T_D elevated, many readers wouldn’t have been able to place the subreddit they came from. Nonetheless, T_D commanded half of the top 25 posts on r/all after the Pulse shooting.

TITLE: Islamic State claims responsibility for Orlando nightclub shooting

TITLE: Officials in Los Angeles report a person with an arsenal of guns and explosives was arrested on his way to #LAPride.

TITLE: Information for blood donors

In elevating posts that played to no apparent political angle, T_D’s mods again showed tactical acumen. Taylor says the mods had noticed other subreddits limiting conversation about the shooting due to their sub-specific rules and internal confusion. They seized on the opportunity to present T_D as a place for open conversation.

June 12 also established T_D as not only a Trump subreddit, but also, paradoxically, an anti-Reddit subreddit. Some of the posts T_D elevated to r/all that day directly attacked the site, accusing r/news—with 21.4 million subscribers, one of Reddit’s largest current events subreddits—of censoring the shooting. Searching for a place to talk, Redditors turned away from the heavily moderated comments sections on r/news and migrated to T_D. Some of them liked what they found.

COMMENT BY u/Faultless: I’m not that big of a fan of the guy, But shout out to r/thedonald for calling out r/news on the censorship.

“The_Donald would see its biggest growth when other people saw Reddit acting in, what they perceived to be, an unfair manner,” Taylor says. On June 12, T_D gained more than 10,000 subscribers.

Finally, its exposure that day gave T_D plenty of room to tout its usual messaging. Alongside the anti-Reddit and current events discussions, the sub stacked up post after post of anti-Islamic sentiment.

TITLE: Caught on Video=> “Gays Must Die” Says Islamic Speaker at Orlando Mosque

TITLE: Milo Yiannopoulos on Twitter: “Western capitalist democracy gave women and gays equal footing in society. Islam is here to roll the clock back.”

To the end of their second- and third-highest-ranked posts of June 12, the mods added text: “DEPORT ISLAM” on one, and “#NEVERISLAM” on the other.

The Pulse shooting ended up a coup de maître for T_D’s volunteer moderators. In the next two days, the sub again gained thousands of subscribers, and news outlets around the country mentioned the page. It was T_D’s greatest implementation yet of the lesson it had learned months before: Play for attention where you can. Now, less than a year after its creation, T_D was riding high.

Through the summer and fall of 2016, T_D kept rolling. In a demonstration of the momentous effect the mods’ strategies had on the entire direction of the site, Reddit’s staff took direct public action in June of that year, changing Reddit’s algorithm and preventing the sub from reaching r/all as frequently. Nonetheless, T_D crossed 200,000 subscribers in August and entered the ranks of Reddit’s top 200 biggest subs by October.

Candidate Trump rolled on, too, cementing victory at his party’s national convention and making a string of racist, sexist, and ableist statements trumpeted by his Reddit fan base. By the time of Trump’s victory in November, T_D was among the most prominent political communities on the web

The Trump win was, naturally, yet another turning point. On November 11 and 12, T_D was among the fastest-growing pages on Reddit that users weren’t automatically subscribed to. In just over a month, it added another hundred thousand subscribers, and it continued to provoke. Famously, Huffman was caught in late 2016 editing insulting comments about himself that users had posted on T_D, an unheard-of action by a big tech CEO that brought a wave of media attention. Shortly thereafter, Reddit again changed its policies and added a filter to r/all, which allowed its users to exclude T_D from the section entirely. In early 2017, Reddit shifted focus to a new section of the site, r/popular, a staff-curated list of pages in which T_D did not appear.

The same accusations of harassment and coordinated attacks that T_D’s mods made against Reddit were increasingly made against T_D itself. T_D’s content was increasingly problematic, too. From March, 2017:

TITLE: Vlad The Impaler wrote the book on how to deal with Turkish rioters.

POST: A meme image with text “I captured his envoys and had them impaled on spikes.

TITLE: So Spicy It Burns Like Lava

POST: A child holding a sign reading “If you see me with John Podesta call the police.

Meanwhile, T_D added between 500 and 1,500 new subscribers a day, week after week. The subreddit was now exerting influence outside Reddit itself. During the campaign, Trump digital communications director Brad Parscale said he checked the page “daily.” Trump has often retweeted memes that originated on T_D, notably a 2017 incident in which he spread a video of himself edited into a meme where he beat up a man labeled “CNN.”

T_D combed through leaked documents from Wikileaks for extra information, and in July 2017, staff for US representative Matt Gaetz (R-Florida) crowdsourced ideas from the page. The moderators continued to set up “AMAs”—"ask me anything" Q&A sessions that gave their users access to prominent conservative figures. Alex Jones, Roger Stone, and even Trump himself had already stopped by. Reddit, and America, looked on.

“Do I wish we’d come to conclusions sooner? Do I wish we’d figured out the tactics that ultimately worked more quickly? Of course,” Huffman says. “There is no difficult decision that I wish I hadn’t made sooner. The_Donald was a series of difficult decisions.”

QUESTION 2: How did it collapse?

Possibly the most beloved moderator in The_Donald’s history is u/OhSnapYouGotServed. Nearly every T_D volunteer interviewed for this piece spoke fondly of her. “She was well respected,” Jessie says. “By users and mods … She did a sandwich day for International Women’s Day, gave out flairs for best sandwich ideas. Very triggering. Ha.”

“I was incredibly close to OhSnapYouGotServed,” says Jordan, who stepped down as a T_D volunteer in 2017 after OhSnapYouGotServed was removed from Reddit. “She was incredible.”

OhSnapYouGotServed led The_Donald through a time of increasing pressure both from Reddit staff and other parts of the site. To her and her team, Reddit’s actions were contradictory: It punished The_Donald for harassing others but didn’t do enough to stop others from harassing The_Donald. On May 20, 2017, she had had enough: OhSnapYouGotServed called her subreddit to action. “Unlike all of you shitlibs and globalists, The_Donald does not live on its knees,” her post began. “Reddit will lift all restrictions on us, or we’ll make absolutely sure this is the beginning of the end for Reddit: shitlibs and fat SJWs can’t stand themselves. All SJW businesses die. Without us, there’ll be nobody to shill against and Reddit will be branded as an extreme-SJW shithole. Trust me.”

The post continued by calling out multiple other Reddit users by name, and urged The_Donald’s denizens to “make sure we repay everything in kind.” She concluded: “This mod cannot be threatened. I conceal carry and I’d love to show any one of you my skills.”

In this post, OhSnapYouGotServed broke several site-wide rules: One of Reddit’s longest-standing global guidelines prohibits inciting harassment against other users, while another bans manipulating voting or otherwise encouraging misuse of the site’s functions. The next day, her account, and the accounts of two other top T_D volunteers, were removed from their positions. OhSnapYouGotServed was later suspended from Reddit outright.

T_D volunteers pointed to this incident as a turning point in their relationship with the site. In her post, OhSnapYouGotServed took the page’s anti-Reddit sentiment to a new level: She directly called for T_D to move off of Reddit and find another home. She mentioned Voat, a Reddit clone made by users unhappy with the site. In the coming days, others took up the call to abandon ship—signs that pointed to the eventual fate of the community, some two years later.

T_D approached its newly more contentious relationship with the staff uncertainly. While vile content continued to proliferate, at least a few volunteers were concerned with the state of the team’s relationship with Reddit’s staff. To this end, they asked to establish a private group chat with the admins. Such admin-mod chat servers, while not unheard of for Reddit, are not commonplace. However, T_D was polite, and the admins acquiesced—yet another extraordinary step, showing the influence T_D had gained.

“We subsequently left those discussions after it became clear that the mods at the time were not willing to work with us in good faith,” Reddit spokesperson Anna Soellner says.

T_D’s mods tell a different story, one in which they repeatedly reported rule-breaking posts around the site to the admins in their private chat.

The mods were as organized as ever at this point. They established and delegated committees for training new volunteers, community engagement, and rules enforcement from among their dozens of unpaid workers. They made flowcharts to explain their hierarchy to one another they graphed their posts’ performance on r/all to try and find ways to continue gaming the system. But intra-team conflicts continued to fester following OhSnapYouGotServed’s suspension.

“We went from OhSnap to Treteste (or whatever his name was, he was trash),” Jordan says, “to PrinceCamelton (who was the absolute worst, left under him) … I left on my own, which was a hard choice. But there’s things internally that cause you to leave.”

Around this time, the railroading growth of T_D began to slow. That isn’t to say it stopped—on the contrary, the page continued to see hundreds of new subscribers every day. But Reddit Metrics, a tracking site that analyzes subreddit growth, reported fewer and fewer days of massive growth spikes (it calls them “trends”) starting in the middle of 2017. In May of that year, T_D trended five times. Over the next few months, it trended one to three times each month. In December 2017, it didn’t trend at all.

Nonetheless, T_D had grown huge. It crossed 500,000 subscribers in September 2017, and the boom went on month after month as thousands more users flowed in and the mods talked about moving offsite, even as they dedicated hundreds of hours to curating a community on the platform their former leader had disavowed. These arguments would continue, throughout 2018 and into 2019, until Reddit’s staff took an action the volunteers couldn’t forgive.

By June 2019, Reddit’s policy arm was no longer limited to Huffman and his general counsel. In the years that The_Donald had run rampant across the site, Reddit had introduced an “anti-evil” team to deal with site-wide rule breaking. This team turned its attention to T_D.

And the staff saw plenty of evil there. Far from calming down and working with Reddit, the page was as ripe as ever. But even with its new and growing staff, Reddit still relied—and relies—on its volunteers. With millions of subreddits and billions of yearly views, the site (which is more active, by some metrics, than more famous social outlets such as Twitter and Instagram) relies on its volunteer army to function. The still-small staff cannot afford to spend its time actively removing and vetting every post. “One of the things that makes Reddit really special is that the communities are self-governed,” Huffman says.

It was here that T_D got very crossways. Reddit says that it repeatedly found posts and comments on the sub that broke its few global rules—restrictions on so-called brigading (organized harassment campaigns) and on speech that encourages violence, to name two. By mid-2019, conflicts of this sort were old hat for the staff and T_D both. And the admins were losing patience.

In 2015, Reddit had introduced a new weapon to use when a subreddit was particularly vile—“Quarantine.” It functioned like a combination warning label and NSFW tag. Users visiting a quarantined subreddit would be warned that it was a problem child, in much the same way that Twitter and other sites “flag” problem information in posts without expressly removing them. Even more stinging, however, is the edict that posts from a quarantined forum won’t appear anywhere on Reddit except for the home page of expressly subscribed and logged-in users. That means nobody without a verified Reddit account can see them—and that no posts there can appear on r/all.

The incident that led to T_D’s quarantine started in June 2019, when Republican state lawmakers in Oregon walked out of a legislative session to deny quorum over a climate change bill they opposed. Democratic governor Kate Brown ordered state police to go after the missing legislators, some of whom threatened to retaliate violently if pursued.

The_Donald pounced. Jubiliantly, commenters praised the prospect of a violent conflict.

COMMENT BY u/PsychicRussiaSpy: Rifles are the only way we’re going to get an peace in our lives ever again these people will not stop because they’re [sic] got crazy people energy crazy people energy you know what that is they don’t have a life so it’s just this bullshit it’s either war and we get rid of these guys or a lifetime of listening to this shit over and over again start getting yourself ready I think this should happen cuz I want some fucking piece [sic] from these people

COMMENT By u/john_denvers_dick: 4th generation Oregonain here, I have seen my beloved state turn into North California. They only way to get it back is to burn Portland and Eugene to the ground.

Those comments appeared on T_D on June 24, alongside countless others threatening both Oregon politicians and the state police sent after the legislators. In response, on June 29, Reddit staff quarantined T_D. “Your next steps,” staff wrote to the volunteers, “are that you unambiguously communicate to your subscribers that violent content is unacceptable.”

History of R-5 SS 82 - History

The origin of r-process elements remains unidentified and still puzzles us. The recent discovery of evidence for the ejection of r-process elements from a short-duration γ-ray burst singled out neutron star mergers (NSMs) as their origin. In contrast, core-collapse supernovae are ruled out as the main origin of heavy r-process elements (A > 110) by recent numerical simulations. However, the properties characterizing NSM events - their rarity and high yield of r-process elements per event - have been claimed to be incompatible with the observed stellar records on r-process elements in the Galaxy. We add to this picture with our results, which show that the observed constant [r-process/H] ratio in faint dwarf galaxies and one star unusually rich in r-process in the Sculptor galaxy agree well with this rarity of NSM events. Furthermore, we found that a large scatter in the abundance ratios of r-process elements to iron in the Galactic halo can be reproduced by a scheme that incorporates an assembly of various protogalactic fragments, in each of which r-process elements supplied by NSMs pervade the whole fragment while supernovae distribute heavy elements only inside the regions swept up by the blast waves. Our results demonstrate that NSMs occurring at Galactic rate of 12-23 Myr -1 are the main site of r-process elements, and we predict the detection of gravitational waves from NSMs at a high rate with upcoming advanced detectors.

82nd Airborne Division History

The 82nd Division was activated at Camp Gordon, Georgia, on 25 August 1917. It was one of the National Army divisions of conscript soldiers. As the Division filled, it was discovered there were soldiers from every state. Through a popular contest, the nickname "All American" was chosen to reflect the unique composition of the 82nd Division.

On 25 April 1918, the Division sailed for Europe. The 325th Infantry Regiment was chosen to parade before the King of England on 11 May 1918 to show America's commitment to the Allies. Early in June 1918 the 82nd sent small groups of officers and noncommissioned officers to the British held Somme sector of the front to gain experience in small unit operations. During one such action, Captain Jewett Wiliams of the 326th Infantry Regiment became the first 82nd Division soldier to give his life in combat.

On 16 June 1918, the 82nd Division moved by train from its location in Somme to Toul, France. Since the Division had moved into a French sector, the troops were issued French Chauchat automatic rifles and Hotchkiss 8mm machineguns, thus making resupply easier.

The Division's assignment was to relieve the 26th Division in the Lagney Sector, northeast of Toul. That section of the western front was known as the Woevre Front. The mission was conducted on 25 June 1918. Although the area was considered a defensive sector, the 82nd Division actively patrolled and conducted raids. The first large scale raid by the Division occurred on 4 August 1918 when companies K and M of the 326th Infantry Regiment, supported by the 320th Machine Gun Battalion, attacked German positions at Flirey and penetrated over 600 meters. The raid was small compared to the operations the Division would soon conduct, but it provided valuable experience. On 18 July 1918, the sector was reduced and redesignated Lucey at which time command was given to the 82nd Division. On 10 August 1918, the 82nd Division was relieved by the 89th Division, and moved to the area west of Toul.

The 82nd Division was ordered to relieve the 2nd Division in the Marbache Sector on 15 August 1918. The Division trained in this area until 11 September 1918. On 12 September 1918, the Division was committed to the St. Mihiel Offensive. After completing its mission the 82nd was once again stationed in the Marbache Sector from 17-20 September 1918. On 20 September 1918, the 82nd Division was relieved at the front and moved to Marbache to prepare for the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, ending its participation in the Lorraine Campaign.

The Allies had planned 2 large offensive operations for the fall of 1918 that would reduce German pockets of resistance in France. One of these was the St. Mihiel salient, which penetrated nearly 25 kilometers into Allied lines, and severed the Verdun-Toul railroad. The French had been trying to dislodge the Germans from the salient since 1914, but had been unsuccessful. It was hoped that the arrival of the American divisions would turn the tide.

To reduce the St. Mihiel salient, the American First Army was formed with the I, IV, and V Corps, for a combined total of 665,000 troops. The 82nd Division was assigned to the I Corps, and was placed on the far right flank on the south side of the salient. Its mission was to make contact and keep pressure on the enemy. On 12 September 1918 the First Army began its attack. The main thrust of the 82nd was on the west bank of the Moselle River heading north to Norroy. Throughout 14 September 1918, the German artillery shelled the area with high explosives and mustard gas, but the 82nd Division held. On 15 September 1918, the Division continued the attack, entering Vandieres and securing Hill 128 to the north. The 82nd Division was relieved on 21 September 1918. Heavy casualties had been caused by enemy artillery. Overall casualties for the Division numbered more than 800 for the St. Mihiel offensive. Colonel Emory Pike, who died of wounds received during the operation, earned the Medal of Honor for his actions, making him the first member of the 82nd Division to be decorated with the nation's highest military award.

The second large-scale offensive planned by the Allies for the fall of 1918 was aimed at reducing German positions in the Meuse River Valley and the Argonne Forest. The key objective was the Carigan-Sedan-Mezieres railroad, which was a vital enemy supply line. On 6 October 1918, the 82nd Division was ordered to clear the east edge of the Argonne to relive pressure on the 1st Division. The following day, the 164th Brigade seized its first 2 objectives, Hill 180 and Hill 223. On 10 October 1918, the 163rd Brigade joined the fight and by evening the Division held Cornay, high ground to the north, a portion of the Decauville Railroad, and had cleared the eastern half of the Argonne Forest.

The second phase of the 82nd's operation called for the Division to fight astride the Aire River. Moving north, the 82nd Division captured St. Juvin on 14 October 1918 and defended it against a heavy counter-attack the following day. For the next few days the 82nd was involved in fighting in the Agron River Valley and the Ravin aux Pierres. By 21 October 1918 the Division had both in its possession. For the next several days the Division patrolled and manned outposts. During its service in the Meuse-Argonne, the 82nd had suffered over 7,000 casualties and had another Medal of Honor recipient, Corporal Alvin York of G Company, 328th Infantry Regiment. The 82nd Division was relieved in the Argonne on 1 November 1918, thus ending its combat participation in the Great War.

The 82nd Division was demobilized on 27 May 1919, but was reconstituted on 24 June 1921. The Division Headquarters was organized at Columbia, South Carolina, in January 1922. The 82nd formed part of the new Organized Reserves. Elements of the Division were located in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. On 30 January 1942, the 82nd Division was renamed the 82nd Infantry Division.

Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 brought the United States to war again. The 82nd Infantry Division was called to active duty on 25 March 1942 with Major General Omar Bradley as commander and Brigadier General Matthew Ridgway as assistant commander. At Camp Claiborne, Louisiana, the Division was organized as a triangular division, built around 3 infantry regiments. Alvin York was invited to visit the Division to build esprit-de-corps. A Division song was even written for the occasion. In June 1942, Ridgway succeeded Bradley in command of the 82nd Infantry Division.

Due to its high level of training, the 82nd Infantry Division was designated the US Army's first airborne division. The 82nd was reorganized and redesignated the 82nd Airborne Division on 15 August 1942. The original organization called for one parachute infantry regiment and 2 glider infantry regiments. On 1 October 1942 the 82nd moved to Fort Bragg, North Carolina, where training continued and final organizational changes were made. The final structure contained the 504th and 505th Parachute Infantry Regiments, the 325th Glider Infantry Regiment, 319th and 320th Glider Field Artillery Battalions, 376th and 456th Parachute Field Artillery Battalions, 80th Airborne Anti-Aircraft Battalion, 307th Airborne Engineer Battalion, and various support units.

In April 1943, the 82nd departed Fort Bragg and eventually arrived at Casablanca, Morocco, on 10 May 1943. Shortly, the 82nd Airborne Division moved to Oujda where intense training was conducted for the invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky. The 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment, commanded by Colonel James Gavin, was chosen to spearhead the assault. The 505th Parachute Infantry was reinforced with the 3rd Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment. On 9 July 1943, Gavin's 505th Combat Team conducted the first American regimental combat parachute assault in the vicinity of Gela, Sicily.

The paratroopers were widely scattered, but were able to gather into small groups to harass the enemy. Colonel Gavin formed one group on Biazza Ridge where the Herman Goering Division was stopped before reaching the newly established American beachhead at Gela. On the evening of 11 July 1943, the remainder of the 504th Parachute Infantry parachuted into Sicily. Passing over the American fleet, the transports were mistaken for enemy bombers and 23 were shot down. Eighty-one troopers were killed, including the assistant division commander, Brigadier General Charles Keerans. The 82nd Airborne Division continued its fighting in Sicily by leading Patton's westward drive to Trapani and Castellmare. In 5 days, the Division moved 150 miles and took 23,000 prisoners.

On 9 September 1943, General Clark's Fifth Army launched Operation Avalanche with an amphibious landing at Salerno, Italy. Several operations had been planned for the 82nd Airborne, including a drop on Rome, but were cancelled. Within 4 days the Allied beachhead was in trouble. General Clark sent an urgent request to General Ridgway who was in Sicily with the 82nd Airborne. On 13 September 1943, Colonel Reuben Tucker led his 504th combat team (minus 3rd battalion) on a parachute assault at Paestum, south of Salerno. On 14 September 1943, the 505th Parachute Infantry jumped. The paratroopers were rushed to the front line where they engaged the enemy in the rugged hills and drove them back. On 15 September 1943, the 25th Infantry and 3/504th Parachute Infantry conducted an amphibious landing near Salerno. Throughout September and October the 82nd conducted operations in the Salerno/Naples area. The 82nd Airbrone was the first unit to enter Naples. The Division advanced north to the Volturno River, cleared the area of the enemy, and became the first unit to set sail for England, via Ireland, to prepare for the invasion of Normandy.

The 504th Parachute Infantry, meanwhile, continued fighting in the Venafro sector of Italy until being relieved on 27 December 1943. By 22 January 1944, the 504th Combat Team was back in action as part of Fifth Army's amphibious assault at Anzio during Operation Shingle. The 504th Parachute Infantry took up positions on the right flank of the beachhead along the Mussolini Canal. 3/504th Parachute Infantry was committed to fighting in the northern sector where it earned a Presidential Unit Citation for actions in the town of Aprilia. While operating along the Mussolini Canal, a German officer noted in his diary, "American parachutists -- devils in baggy pants --- are less than 100 meters from my outpost line. Seems like the black-hearted devils are everywhere." The 504th Parachute Infantry encountered elements of the Herman Goering Division, the 16th SS Panzer Granadier Division, and the 3rd Panzer Grenadier Division. The 504th Parachute Infantry was finally withdrawn from Anzio on 25 March 1944 and set sail for England to join the Division once again.

While the 82nd Airborne was in England, a decision was made to add a parachute regiment to the airborne divisions for the upcoming invasion of Normandy. With the 504th still in Italy, 2 regiments were needed. The 2nd Airborne Brigade, containing the 507th and 508th Parachute Infantry Regiments, was sent from Fort Bragg to join the Division. Early in the morning of 6 June 1944, the 505th Parachute Infantry, 507th Parachute Infantry, and 508th Parachute Infantry, along with artillery and engineers, parachuted into Normandy to being Operation Neptune, the assault phase of Overlord. The mission of the Division was to seize the town of St. Mere Eglise and crossings over the Merderet River. By dawn, the 505th Parachute Infantry had secured St. Mere Eglise and a bridge over the Merderet at La Fiere. Gliders carrying the 325th Glider Infantry and antitank guns began to arrive and join the fighting. Some of the heaviest fighting occurred on 9 June 1943 as the Division seized the causeway at La Fiere. During the action, PFC Charles DeGlopper of C Company, 325th Glider Infantry, earned the Medal of Honor. The 82nd Airborne continued fighting in Normandy for 33 days, leading the Allied advance west across the base of the Cotentin Peninsula. The Division earned the Presidential Unit Citation, 2 French Croix de Guerre, and the French Fourragere of the Croix de Guerre. The 82nd Airborne was relieved in Normany on 8 July and returned to England to prepare for future airborne operations.

On the afternoon of 17 September 1944, the 82nd conducted its fourth parachute assault, this time into Holland as part of Operation Market Garden. The Division's objectives were to seize bridges over the Maas and Waal Rivers, and hold the high ground between Nijmegen and Groesbeek. The 504th Parachute Infantry was returned to the 82nd and the 507th Parachute Infantry departed. The 508th Parachute Infantry remained with the 82nd Airborne. The majority of the drops were on target and assembly was rapid. The bridge over the Maas River at Grave was captured on 17 September 1944. On 20 September 1944, the 505th Parachute Infantry launched an attack through Nijmegen to capture the south end of the bridge over the Waal River. The 504th Parachute Infantry, with C Company, 307th Engineers, launched a simultaneous attack across the river to capture the north end of the bridge. The first wave suffered 50 percent casualties, but captured its objective. On 21 September 1944, Private John Towle of C Company, 504th Parachute Infantry, single handedly broke up an enemy counter attack consisting of 100 men and 2 tanks. For his actions, Towle received the Medal of Honor. After 56 days of combat in Holland, the 82nd was relieved on 11 November 1944 and sent to rest camps near Rheims, France.

On 16 December 1944, lead elements of a German offensive broke through the American line in the Ardennes Forest of Belgium. The only reserve forces available were the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions. The 82nd was alerted on 17 December 1944 and by the next evening was in Webermont, Belgium, on the northern shoulder of the bulge created by the enemy attack. On the morning of 19 December 1944, the 82nd Airborne took up defensive positions along the Salm River. There, the 82nd stopped Von Runstedt's armored offensive. In the fierce fighting of the Battle of the Bulge, 1st Sergeant Leonard Funk of C Company, 508th Parachute Infantry, earned the Medal of Honor.

The 82nd was on the offensive by January 1945. The Division moved through Belgium and the Hurtgen Forest, penetrated the Seigfried Line, and arrived at the Roer River by February 1945. On 30 April 1945, the 82nd Airborne conducted its last combat operation of World War II with an assault crossing of the Elbe River near Bleckede, Germany. On 2 May 1945, Major General Gavin accepted the surrender of 150,000 troops of the German 21st Army. On the same day, troopers of the Division liberated survivors of the Woebbelin Concentration Camp. After 6 campaigns spanning 442 days in combat, the war was over for the 82nd.

From August to December 1945, the 82nd conducted occupation duty in Berlin, Germany. There, while being reviewed by General George Patton, the 82nd Airborne Division received its title "America's Guard of Honor." In January 1946, the 82nd returned to the United State aboard the Queen Mary and led the victory parade in New York City on 12 January 1946.

On 19 January 1946, the 82nd Airborne returned to Fort Bragg and began training for the uncertain Cold War years. The 82nd Airborne became a strategic deployment force as it trained for a variety of conditions and tested new airplanes with greater capacity and range. In 1948, the 82nd Airborne was allotted to the Regular Army, ensuring its active status.

In 1957, the 82nd Airborne underwent reorganization for the Pentomic structure. The Division consisted of 5 Airborne Battle Groups that were capable of independent operations on a nuclear battlefield. Fortunately, that concept did not have to be tested in a real war. In 1964, the 82nd Airborne was again reorganized under the ROAD concept, which called for 3 brigades of infantry, each with 3 battalions, and a brigade of artillery with 3 battalions, plus the usual division support elements. Life in the 82nd during the 1950s and 1960s consisted of intensive training exercises in all environments and locations to include Alaska, Panama, the Far East and the continental United States.

When President Kennedy came to Fort Bragg, North Carolina to inspect the Division for a check on its state of readiness and to get a briefing on the air-mobility tests, the Commander divided the Division into 5 groups, each group in a different uniform to show how versatile the division was to take on assignments in any part of the globe. One group was in standard fatigues, ready to fight in Europe. A second group was in jungle camouflage fatigues, ready to deploy to Vietnam. A third group was in desert camouflage fatigues, ready to go to a desert operation. A fourth group was in winter uniforms, similar to those used during the Korean War. The fifth group was dressed in white ski suits and carried skis, showing that we were ready to fight in the Arctic. It was a hot day and those dressed in jungle or desert suits were quite comfortable. However, the groups dressed in winter clothing were very uncomfortable.

In 1965 the 82nd Airborne was able to test the ROAD concept in combat. On 29 April 1965 the 3rd Brigade (1st and 2nd Battalions, 505th Parachute Infantry and 1st Battalion, 508th Parachute Infantry) was alerted for deployment to the Dominican Republic in Operation Powerpack. The Brigade arrived on 30 April 1965 and secured the Duarte Bridge over the Ozama. A link up was conducted with Marines in Santo Domingo and a corridor was established to isolate the rebel forces. An attack was launched by rebel forces on 15 June 1965, but was stopped by the 82nd after 2 days of heavy fighting. Most of the Division returned home by late summer 1965. The 1st Brigade remained to maintain order. By 21 September 1966, the last elements redeployed to Fort Bragg.

The 1960s were a turbulent decade. The 82nd Airborne sent small contingents to the Congo in 1964 and 1967. The Division also participated in several civil disturbance operations. The largest were in Detroit in 1967 and in Washington, DC, in 1968.

With the Tet Offensive in Vietnam during February 1968, additional US troops were needed in a hurry. On 14 February 1968, the 3rd Brigade deployed to Vietnam in Operation All American. The Brigade arrived at Chu Lai and moved north to Phu Bai near Hue. In March 1968, the 3rd Brigade troopers fought alongside the 101st Airborne in Operation Carentan I. The Brigade conducted combat operations for 22 months, fighting along Highway 1, the Song Bo River, Hue, and Saigon. In September 1969, the Brigade conducted its last combat operation in Vietnam, Operation Yorktown Victor, in the so-called iron triangle. The 3rd Brigade returned to Fort Bragg and the 82nd Airborne on 12 December 1969.

During the 1970s, the 82nd Airborne was alerted several times and Division units deployed to the Republic of Korea, Turkey and Greece for exercises in potential future battlegrounds. An antitank task force armed with the new TOW missile deployed to Vietnam in the spring of 1972. Other alerts such as the Middle East crisis of 1973, the Zaire hostage crisis of 1978, and the Iran hostage situation of 1979, did not see the 82nd Airborne deploy. The 82nd Airborne was, however, the first US Army unit to participate in the Multinational Force and Observers peacekeeping mission in the Sinai in March 1982.

On 25 October 1983, the combat capabilities of the 82nd were put to the test again in Operation Urgent Fury to rescue American students and prevent revolution on the Caribbean Island of Grenada. The Division conducted air-land operations at Point Salines Airfield on the south side of the island. Fighting lasted several days as the 82nd encountered the People's Revolutionary Army and Cuban forces. Using aviation assets, the 82nd Airborne rescued students on the Lance aux Epines peninsula and captured General Hudson Austin, commander of the People's Revolutionary Armed Forces. The last 82nd Airborne elements returned to Fort Bragg on 12 December 1983.

On 17 March 1988, the 1/504th Parachute Infantry airlanded in Honduras as part of Golden Pheasant, an exercise designed to ensure regional security. The 2/504th Parachute Infantry parachuted in the next day. The exercise provided a show of support for Honduras and tested the rapid deployment capabilities of the 82nd Airborne. The deployment was billed a joint training exercise, but the paratroopers were ready to fight. The deployment of armed and willing paratroopers to the Honduran countryside caused the Sandinistas to withdraw back to Nicaragua.

On 20 December 1989, the All American Division conducted its first combat parachute assault since World War II. The 82nd parachuted into Torrijos Airport, Panama, in Operation Just Cause to oust a dictator and restore a duly elected government. Armored vehicles, the M551 Sheridan, were parachuted into combat for the first time. Airmobile operations were conducted against Fort Cimmarron, Tinajitas, and Panama Viejo. The 1st Brigade Task Force was made up of the 1st and 2nd Battalions, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment. In Panama, the paratroopers were joined on the ground by 3rd Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, which was already in Panama. After the night combat jump and seizure of the airport, the 82nd conducted follow-on combat air assault missions in Panama City and the surrounding areas. The Division moved to Panama City where it took part in the attack against Noriega's headquarters and his eventual surrender. The last elements of the 82nd Airborne returned home on 12 January 1990.

It was not long before the 82nd was back in combat again. On 2 August 1990, Iraqi armor and troops rolled into Kuwait. The 82nd deployed on 8 August 1990 in Operation Desert Shield. Standing across the border from the Iraqi tanks, the 82nd Airborne drew a line in the sand with its light M551 Sheridans, TOW missiles, and AH-64A Apache helicopters. The United States assembled an allied coalition of forces and committed to the largest military deployment since Vietnam. The first unit to deploy to Saudi Arabia was a task force comprising the Division's 2nd Brigade. Soon after, the rest of the Division followed. There, intensive training began in anticipation of fighting in the desert with the heavily armored Iraqi Army. The adage, or battle cry picked up by the paratroopers was, "The road home. is through Baghdad." Air strikes against Iraq began on 16 January 1991.

On 24 February 1991, the ground phase of the war, Operation Desert Storm, began. The 82nd Airborne conducted airmobile and mounted operations on the allied left flank, penetrating deep into Iraq. The vehicle mounted 82nd Airborne Division paratroopers protected the XVIII Airborne Corps flank as fast-moving armor and mechanized units moved deep inside Iraq. A 2nd Brigade Task Force was attached to the 6th French Light Armored Division becoming the far left flank of the Corps. In the short 100-hour ground war, the vehicle mounted 82nd drove deep into Iraq and captured thousands of Iraqi soldiers and tons of equipment, weapons and ammunition. With its mission complete, the 82nd Airborne began to deploy home on 7 March 1991. By April 1991, the entire Division was back at Fort Bragg.

Following the Division's return and subsequent victory parades, the troopers began to re-establish some of the systems that had become dormant during their eight months in the desert. On top of the list was the regaining of individual and unit airborne proficiency and the continuation of tough and realistic training. In August 1992, the Division was alerted to deploy a task force to the hurricane-ravaged area of South Florida and provide humanitarian assistance following Hurricane Andrew. For more than 30 days, Division troopers provided food, shelter and medical attention to a grateful Florida population, instilling a sense of hope and renewed confidence in the military.

Early in the evening of 18 September 1994, nearly 3,000 paratroopers of the 82nd Airborne Division were enroute to Haiti to launch Operation Restore Democracy. Aviation elements were already deployed to the nearby island of Great Inauga. Elements of the 3/73rd Armor were waiting aboard ships off the coast. When Haitian leaders heard the 82nd Airborne Division was on the way, a peace agreement was reached, and the 82nd Airborne was recalled. From 26 September to 25 October 1994, elements of the 3/73rd Armor supported peacekeeping operations in Haiti.

82nd Airborne Division paratroopers were among the first ground troops sent into the war-torn Kosovo region of the Balkans in Summer 1999, when the 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment moved in from neighboring Macedonia. They were followed shortly by the 3rd Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, who themselves were followed by the 1st Battalion, 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment in January 2001 as part of regular peacekeeping operation rotations.

When America was attacked on 11 September 2001, President George W. Bush called upon the American military to fight global terrorism. Soldiers of the 82nd Airborne Division deployed to Afghanistan and the Central Command Area of Responsibility to support combat operations.

In June 2002 the 82nd Airborne's Task Force Panther, comprised of elements from the 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment and other 82nd units, deployed to the Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Task Force Devil, comprised of the 504th Parachute Infantry and other 82nd elements, replaced Task Force Panther in January 2003, where they maintained the Division's mission.

In February of 2003, the 2nd Brigade, deployed along with the Division Headquarters to Kuwait in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The 2nd Brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division was the theater reserve, available to employ deep in Iraq, specifically Baghdad. The 82nd could jump or fly into Baghdad to restore order and demonstrate a coalition presence if Saddam's government fled or imploded. In the meantime its presence in the theater gave Saddam another problem to contemplate. The Division conducted sustained combat operations throughout Iraq and the CENTCOM area of operations.

In May 2003 the Division Headquarters returned to Fort Bragg. The 2nd Brigade remained in Iraq attached to the 1st Armored Division and continued to conduct combat operations. The Division Headquarters along with the 3rd Brigade and elements of the 82nd DIVARTY, 82nd DISCOM, 82nd Aviation Brigade, and separate battalions returned to Iraq in August of 2003 to continue command and control over combat operations in and around Baghdad.

In January 2004 the 1st Brigade deployed to conduct combat operations in OIF. The 2nd Brigade redeployed to Fort Bragg, North Carolina in February 2004. The Division Headquarters was relieved by the 1st Marine Expeditionary Division in March of 2004 and the remaining 82nd forces in Iraq redeployed to Fort Bragg, North Carolina by the end of April 2004. For the first time in 2 years all of the Division's units were returned to home station.

In September of 2004, the 82nd's DRF-1, 1-505th Parachute Infantry was deployed to support OEF 6 in support of JTF-76 and the Afghnistan elections. The TF redeployed in October 2004.

In December 2004, the 82nd's 1-17th Cavalry, TF 2-325 and TF 3-325 deployed to Iraq in support of the Iraqi national elections. They started their redeployment to Fort Bragg in March 2005.

In July of 2005, the 82nd's TF 1-325 and slice elements deployed to Afghanistan in support of the Afghanistan national elections. They started their redeployment to Fort Bragg in November of 2005.

In September 2005, the 82nd TF 2-325 and TF 3-504 deployed to Iraq in support of the Iraqi national elections.

On 15 January 2006, as part of the Army's transformation towards a modular force, the composition of the 82nd Airborne was changed. The most noticable changes as a product of the modular transformation were the changes in the relationship between support elements at division and brigade levels, and the addition of a 4th Brigade Combat Team to the Division's structure. The 82nd Airborne Division inactivated its Division Artillery (DIVARTY) and Division Support Command (DISCOM). DISCOM and other assets (engineer, military intelligence, military police, and signal) habitually assigned to the line brigades were activated as organic support elements either in reorganized Brigade Support Battalions or Brigade Special Troops Battalions. Additional assets were passed to the Division Special Troops Battalion and the 82nd Sustainment Brigade. The 82nd Aviation Brigade was also reorganized and redesignated as the 82nd Combat Aviation Brigade. The 82nd Soldier Support Battalion was also reorganized as part of the shift.

In late 2006 elements of the 82nd Airborne Division again deployed to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom, with another deployment coming in January 2007.

In May 2008 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division was announced along with other units as part of a planned series of rotations to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom. 3rd Brigade Combat Team subsequently deployed to Iraq in late 2008.

History of R-5 SS 82 - History


BRITISH and COMMONWEALTH NAVIES at the Beginning and End of World War 2

"King George V" battleship HMS Anson (CyberHeritage , click to enlarge ) in 1945. Laid down in 1937 and still the measure of naval power at the start of World War 2. By 1945, the battleship and its large gun had been superseded by the aircraft carrier and its aircraft.

Each Summary is complete in its own right. The same information may therefore be found in a number of related summaries

(for more ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search)

. the heart of the Royal Navy was its centuries old traditions and 200,000 officers and men including the Royal Marines and Reserves. At the very top as professional head was the First Sea Lord, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Dudley Pound.

Royal Navy Warship Strength

The Royal Navy, still the largest in the world in September 1939, included:

15 Battleships & battlecruisers, of which only two were post-World War 1. Five 'King George V' class battleships were building.

7 Aircraft carriers. One was new and five of the planned six fleet carriers were under construction. There were no escort carriers.

66 Cruisers, mainly post-World War 1 with some older ships converted for AA duties. Including cruiser-minelayers, 23 new ones had been laid down.

184 Destroyers of all types. Over half were modern, with 15 of the old 'V' and 'W' classes modified as escorts. Under construction or on order were 32 fleet destroyers and 20 escort types of the 'Hunt' class.

60 Submarines, mainly modern with nine building.

45 escort and patrol vessels with nine building, and the first 56 'Flower' class corvettes on order to add to the converted 'V' and 'W's' and 'Hunts'. However, there were few fast, long-endurance convoy escorts.

Included in the Royal Navy totals were:

Royal Australian Navy - six cruisers, five destroyers and two sloops

Royal Canadian Navy - six destroyers

Royal Indian Navy - six escort and patrol vessels

Royal New Zealand Navy, until October 1941 the New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy - two cruisers and two sloops.

Strengths and Weaknesses

The Fleet was reasonably well-equipped to fight conventional surface actions with effective guns, torpedoes and fire control, but in a maritime war that would soon revolve around the battle with the U-boat, the exercise of air power, and eventually the ability to land large armies on hostile shores, the picture was far from good.

ASDIC, the RN's answer to the submarine, had limited range and was of little use against surfaced U-boats, and the stern-dropped or mortar-fired depth charge was t he only reasonably lethal anti-submarine weapon available. The Fleet Air Arm (FAA) recently returned to full control of the Navy, was equipped with obsolescent aircraft, and in the face of heavy air attack the Fleet had few, modern anti-aircraft guns. Co-operation with the RAF was l imited although three Area Combined Headquarters had been established in Britain. Coastal Command, the RAF's maritime wing, had only short range aircraft, mainly for reconnaissance. And there was little combined operations capability.

On the technical side, early air warning radars were fitted to a small number of ships. The introduction by the Germans of magnetic mines found the Royal Navy only equipped to sweep moored contact mines. Finally, the German Navy's B-Service could read the Navy's operational and convoy codes.

Primary Maritime Tasks

These were based on the assumption Britain and France were actively allied against the European Axis powers of Germany and Italy. The Royal Navy would be responsible for the North Sea and most of the Atlantic, although the French would contribute some forces. In the Mediterranean, defence would be shared between both Navies, but as it happened, Benito Mussolini's claimed ownership of the Mediterranean - his 'Mare Nostrum' - did not have to be disputed for another nine months.

Threats to and Responses by the Royal Navies - September 1939

OBJECTIVE 1 - Defence of trade routes, and convoy organisation and escort, especially to and from Britain.

- The first overseas convoys left Britain via the South Western Approaches. From the Thames they sailed through the English Channel (OA) and from Liverpool through the Irish Sea (OB). Later in September, convoys left Freetown, Sierra Leone (SL), Halifax, Nova Scotia (HX) and Gibraltar (HG) for the UK.

- In the North Atlantic anti-submarine escorts were provided from Britain out to 200 miles west of Ireland (15W) and to the middle of the Bay of Biscay. For a few hundred miles from Halifax, cover was given by Canadian warships. The same degree of protection was given to ships sailing from other overseas assembly ports.

- Cruisers and (shortly) armed merchant cruisers sometimes took over as ocean escorts. Particularly fast or slow ships from British, Canadian and other assembly ports sailed independently, as did the many hundreds of vessels scattered across the rest of the oceans. Almost throughout the war it was the independently-routed ships and the convoy stragglers that suffered most from the mainly German warships, raiders, aircraft and above all submarines that sought to break the Allied supply lines.

OBJECTIVE 2 - Detection and destruction of surface raiders and U-boats.

- Fleet aircraft carriers were employed on anti-U-boat sweeps in the Western Approaches.

OBJECTIVE 3 - Maritime blockade of Germany and contraband control.

- Closer to Germany the first mines were laid by Royal Navy destroyers in the approaches to Germany's North Sea bases.

OBJECTIVE 4 - Defence of own coasts.

- British East Coast convoys (FN/FS) commenced between the Thames Estuary and the Firth of Forth in Scotland. Southend-on-Sea, the Thames peacetime seaside resort, saw over 2,000 convoys arrive and depart in the course of the war.

- Defensive mine laying began with an anti-U-boat barrier in the English Channel across the Straits of Dover, followed by an East Coast barrier to protect coastal convoy routes.

OBJECTIVE 5 - Escort troops to France and between Britain, the Dominions and other areas under Allied control.

Belligerent Warship Strengths in European Waters & Atlantic Ocean

History of R-5 SS 82 - History

This part shall be known as the "Florida Residential Landlord and Tenant Act."

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330.

83.41 Application.

This part applies to the rental of a dwelling unit.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 ss. 2, 20, ch. 82-66.

83.42 Exclusions from application of part.

This part does not apply to:

(1) Residency or detention in a facility, whether public or private, when residence or detention is incidental to the provision of medical, geriatric, educational, counseling, religious, or similar services.

(2) Occupancy under a contract of sale of a dwelling unit or the property of which it is a part.

(3) Transient occupancy in a hotel, condominium, motel, roominghouse, or similar public lodging, or transient occupancy in a mobile home park.

(4) Occupancy by a holder of a proprietary lease in a cooperative apartment.

(5) Occupancy by an owner of a condominium unit.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330.

83.43 Definitions.

As used in this part, the following words and terms shall have the following meanings unless some other meaning is plainly indicated:

(1) "Building, housing, and health codes" means any law, ordinance, or governmental regulation concerning health, safety, sanitation or fitness for habitation, or the construction, maintenance, operation, occupancy, use, or appearance, of any dwelling unit.

(2) "Dwelling unit" means:

(a) A structure or part of a structure that is rented for use as a home, residence, or sleeping place by one person or by two or more persons who maintain a common household.

(b) A mobile home rented by a tenant.

(c) A structure or part of a structure that is furnished, with or without rent, as an incident of employment for use as a home, residence, or sleeping place by one or more persons.

(3) "Landlord" means the owner or lessor of a dwelling unit.

(4) "Tenant" means any person entitled to occupy a dwelling unit under a rental agreement.

(5) "Premises" means a dwelling unit and the structure of which it is a part and a mobile home lot and the appurtenant facilities and grounds, areas, facilities, and property held out for the use of tenants generally.

(6) "Rent" means the periodic payments due the landlord from the tenant for occupancy under a rental agreement and any other payments due the landlord from the tenant as may be designated as rent in a written rental agreement.

(7) "Rental agreement" means any written agreement, or oral agreement if for less duration than 1 year, providing for use and occupancy of premises.

(8) "Good faith" means honesty in fact in the conduct or transaction concerned.

(9) "Advance rent" means moneys paid to the landlord to be applied to future rent payment periods, but does not include rent paid in advance for a current rent payment period.

(10) "Transient occupancy" means occupancy when it is the intention of the parties that the occupancy will be temporary.

(11) "Deposit money" means any money held by the landlord on behalf of the tenant, including, but not limited to, damage deposits, security deposits, advance rent deposit, pet deposit, or any contractual deposit agreed to between landlord and tenant either in writing or orally.

(12) "Security deposits" means any moneys held by the landlord as security for the performance of the rental agreement, including, but not limited to, monetary damage to the landlord caused by the tenant's breach of lease prior to the expiration thereof.

(13) "Legal holiday" means holidays observed by the clerk of the court.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 1, ch. 74-143 s. 1, ch. 81-190 s. 3, ch. 83-151 s. 17, ch. 94-170.

83.44 Obligation of good faith.

Every rental agreement or duty within this part imposes an obligation of good faith in its performance or enforcement.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330.

83.45 Unconscionable rental agreement or provision.

(1) If the court as a matter of law finds a rental agreement or any provision of a rental agreement to have been unconscionable at the time it was made, the court may refuse to enforce the rental agreement, enforce the remainder of the rental agreement without the unconscionable provision, or so limit the application of any unconscionable provision as to avoid any unconscionable result.

(2) When it is claimed or appears to the court that the rental agreement or any provision thereof may be unconscionable, the parties shall be afforded a reasonable opportunity to present evidence as to meaning, relationship of the parties, purpose, and effect to aid the court in making the determination.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330.

83.46 Rent duration of tenancies.

(1) Unless otherwise agreed, rent is payable without demand or notice periodic rent is payable at the beginning of each rent payment period and rent is uniformly apportionable from day to day.

(2) If the rental agreement contains no provision as to duration of the tenancy, the duration is determined by the periods for which the rent is payable. If the rent is payable weekly, then the tenancy is from week to week if payable monthly, tenancy is from month to month if payable quarterly, tenancy is from quarter to quarter if payable yearly, tenancy is from year to year.

(3) If the dwelling unit is furnished without rent as an incident of employment and there is no agreement as to the duration of the tenancy, the duration is determined by the periods for which wages are payable. If wages are payable weekly or more frequently, then the tenancy is from week to week and if wages are payable monthly or no wages are payable, then the tenancy is from month to month. In the event that the employee ceases employment, the employer shall be entitled to rent for the period from the day after the employee ceases employment until the day that the dwelling unit is vacated at a rate equivalent to the rate charged for similarly situated residences in the area. This subsection shall not apply to an employee or a resident manager of an apartment house or an apartment complex when there is a written agreement to the contrary.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 2, ch. 81-190 s. 2, ch. 87-195 s. 2, ch. 90-133 s. 1, ch. 93-255.

83.47 Prohibited provisions in rental agreements.

(1) A provision in a rental agreement is void and unenforceable to the extent that it:

(a) Purports to waive or preclude the rights, remedies, or requirements set forth in this part.

(b) Purports to limit or preclude any liability of the landlord to the tenant or of the tenant to the landlord, arising under law.

(2) If such a void and unenforceable provision is included in a rental agreement entered into, extended, or renewed after the effective date of this part and either party suffers actual damages as a result of the inclusion, the aggrieved party may recover those damages sustained after the effective date of this part.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330.

83.48 Attorney's fees.

In any civil action brought to enforce the provisions of the rental agreement or this part, the party in whose favor a judgment or decree has been rendered may recover reasonable court costs, including attorney's fees, from the nonprevailing party.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 4, ch. 83-151.

83.49 Deposit money or advance rent duty of landlord and tenant.

(1) Whenever money is deposited or advanced by a tenant on a rental agreement as security for performance of the rental agreement or as advance rent for other than the next immediate rental period, the landlord or the landlord's agent shall either:

(a) Hold the total amount of such money in a separate non-interest-bearing account in a Florida banking institution for the benefit of the tenant or tenants. The landlord shall not commingle such moneys with any other funds of the landlord or hypothecate, pledge, or in any other way make use of such moneys until such moneys are actually due the landlord

(b) Hold the total amount of such money in a separate interest-bearing account in a Florida banking institution for the benefit of the tenant or tenants, in which case the tenant shall receive and collect interest in an amount of at least 75 percent of the annualized average interest rate payable on such account or interest at the rate of 5 percent per year, simple interest, whichever the landlord elects. The landlord shall not commingle such moneys with any other funds of the landlord or hypothecate, pledge, or in any other way make use of such moneys until such moneys are actually due the landlord or

(c) Post a surety bond, executed by the landlord as principal and a surety company authorized and licensed to do business in the state as surety, with the clerk of the circuit court in the county in which the dwelling unit is located in the total amount of the security deposits and advance rent he or she holds on behalf of the tenants or $50,000, whichever is less. The bond shall be conditioned upon the faithful compliance of the landlord with the provisions of this section and shall run to the Governor for the benefit of any tenant injured by the landlord's violation of the provisions of this section. In addition to posting the surety bond, the landlord shall pay to the tenant interest at the rate of 5 percent per year, simple interest. A landlord, or the landlord's agent, engaged in the renting of dwelling units in five or more counties, who holds deposit moneys or advance rent and who is otherwise subject to the provisions of this section, may, in lieu of posting a surety bond in each county, elect to post a surety bond in the form and manner provided in this paragraph with the office of the Secretary of State. The bond shall be in the total amount of the security deposit or advance rent held on behalf of tenants or in the amount of $250,000, whichever is less. The bond shall be conditioned upon the faithful compliance of the landlord with the provisions of this section and shall run to the Governor for the benefit of any tenant injured by the landlord's violation of this section. In addition to posting a surety bond, the landlord shall pay to the tenant interest on the security deposit or advance rent held on behalf of that tenant at the rate of 5 percent per year simple interest.

(2) The landlord shall, within 30 days of receipt of advance rent or a security deposit, notify the tenant in writing of the manner in which the landlord is holding the advance rent or security deposit and the rate of interest, if any, which the tenant is to receive and the time of interest payments to the tenant. Such written notice shall:

(a) Be given in person or by mail to the tenant.

(b) State the name and address of the depository where the advance rent or security deposit is being held, whether the advance rent or security deposit is being held in a separate account for the benefit of the tenant or is commingled with other funds of the landlord, and, if commingled, whether such funds are deposited in an interest-bearing account in a Florida banking institution.

(c) Include a copy of the provisions of subsection (3).

Subsequent to providing such notice, if the landlord changes the manner or location in which he or she is holding the advance rent or security deposit, he or she shall notify the tenant within 30 days of the change according to the provisions herein set forth. This subsection does not apply to any landlord who rents fewer than five individual dwelling units. Failure to provide this notice shall not be a defense to the payment of rent when due.

(a) Upon the vacating of the premises for termination of the lease, the landlord shall have 15 days to return the security deposit together with interest if otherwise required, or in which to give the tenant written notice by certified mail to the tenant's last known mailing address of his or her intention to impose a claim on the deposit and the reason for imposing the claim. The notice shall contain a statement in substantially the following form:

This is a notice of my intention to impose a claim for damages in the amount of upon your security deposit, due to . It is sent to you as required by s. 83.49(3), Florida Statutes. You are hereby notified that you must object in writing to this deduction from your security deposit within 15 days from the time you receive this notice or I will be authorized to deduct my claim from your security deposit. Your objection must be sent to (landlord's address) .

If the landlord fails to give the required notice within the 15-day period, he or she forfeits the right to impose a claim upon the security deposit.

(b) Unless the tenant objects to the imposition of the landlord's claim or the amount thereof within 15 days after receipt of the landlord's notice of intention to impose a claim, the landlord may then deduct the amount of his or her claim and shall remit the balance of the deposit to the tenant within 30 days after the date of the notice of intention to impose a claim for damages.

(c) If either party institutes an action in a court of competent jurisdiction to adjudicate the party's right to the security deposit, the prevailing party is entitled to receive his or her court costs plus a reasonable fee for his or her attorney. The court shall advance the cause on the calendar.

(d) Compliance with this subsection by an individual or business entity authorized to conduct business in this state, including Florida-licensed real estate brokers and salespersons, shall constitute compliance with all other relevant Florida Statutes pertaining to security deposits held pursuant to a rental agreement or other landlord-tenant relationship. Enforcement personnel shall look solely to this subsection to determine compliance. This subsection prevails over any conflicting provisions in chapter 475 and in other sections of the Florida Statutes.

(4) The provisions of this section do not apply to transient rentals by hotels or motels as defined in chapter 509 nor do they apply in those instances in which the amount of rent or deposit, or both, is regulated by law or by rules or regulations of a public body, including public housing authorities and federally administered or regulated housing programs including s. 202, s. 221(d)(3) and (4), s. 236, or s. 8 of the National Housing Act, as amended, other than for rent stabilization. With the exception of subsections (3), (5), and (6), this section is not applicable to housing authorities or public housing agencies created pursuant to chapter 421 or other statutes.

(5) Except when otherwise provided by the terms of a written lease, any tenant who vacates or abandons the premises prior to the expiration of the term specified in the written lease, or any tenant who vacates or abandons premises which are the subject of a tenancy from week to week, month to month, quarter to quarter, or year to year, shall give at least 7 days' written notice by certified mail or personal delivery to the landlord prior to vacating or abandoning the premises which notice shall include the address where the tenant may be reached. Failure to give such notice shall relieve the landlord of the notice requirement of paragraph (3)(a) but shall not waive any right the tenant may have to the security deposit or any part of it.

(6) For the purposes of this part, a renewal of an existing rental agreement shall be considered a new rental agreement, and any security deposit carried forward shall be considered a new security deposit.

(7) Upon the sale or transfer of title of the rental property from one owner to another, or upon a change in the designated rental agent, any and all security deposits or advance rents being held for the benefit of the tenants shall be transferred to the new owner or agent, together with any earned interest and with an accurate accounting showing the amounts to be credited to each tenant account. Upon the transfer of such funds and records as stated herein, and upon transmittal of a written receipt therefor, the transferor shall be free from the obligation imposed in subsection (1) to hold such moneys on behalf of the tenant. However, nothing herein shall excuse the landlord or agent for a violation of the provisions of this section while in possession of such deposits.

(8) Any person licensed under the provisions of s. 509.241, unless excluded by the provisions of this part, who fails to comply with the provisions of this part shall be subject to a fine or to the suspension or revocation of his or her license by the Division of Hotels and Restaurants of the Department of Business and Professional Regulation in the manner provided in s. 509.261.

(9) In those cases in which interest is required to be paid to the tenant, the landlord shall pay directly to the tenant, or credit against the current month's rent, the interest due to the tenant at least once annually. However, no interest shall be due a tenant who wrongfully terminates his or her tenancy prior to the end of the rental term.

History: s. 1, ch. 69-282 s. 3, ch. 70-360 s. 1, ch. 72-19 s. 1, ch. 72-43 s. 5, ch. 73-330 s. 1, ch. 74-93 s. 3, ch. 74-146 ss. 1, 2, ch. 75-133 s. 1, ch. 76-15 s. 1, ch. 77-445 s. 20, ch. 79-400 s. 21, ch. 82-66 s. 5, ch. 83-151 s. 13, ch. 83-217 s. 3, ch. 87-195 s. 1, ch. 87-369 s. 3, ch. 88-379 s. 2, ch. 93-255 s. 5, ch. 94-218 s. 1372, ch. 95-147.

83.50 Disclosure.

(1) The landlord, or a person authorized to enter into a rental agreement on the landlord's behalf, shall disclose in writing to the tenant, at or before the commencement of the tenancy, the name and address of the landlord or a person authorized to receive notices and demands in the landlord's behalf. The person so authorized to receive notices and demands retains authority until the tenant is notified otherwise. All notices of such names and addresses or changes thereto shall be delivered to the tenant's residence or, if specified in writing by the tenant, to any other address.

(2) The landlord or the landlord's authorized representative, upon completion of construction of a building exceeding three stories in height and containing dwelling units, shall disclose to the tenants initially moving into the building the availability or lack of availability of fire protection.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 443, ch. 95-147.

83.51 Landlord's obligation to maintain premises.

(1) The landlord at all times during the tenancy shall:

(a) Comply with the requirements of applicable building, housing, and health codes or

(b) Where there are no applicable building, housing, or health codes, maintain the roofs, windows, screens, doors, floors, steps, porches, exterior walls, foundations, and all other structural components in good repair and capable of resisting normal forces and loads and the plumbing in reasonable working condition. However, the landlord shall not be required to maintain a mobile home or other structure owned by the tenant.

The landlord's obligations under this subsection may be altered or modified in writing with respect to a single-family home or duplex.

(a) Unless otherwise agreed in writing, in addition to the requirements of subsection (1), the landlord of a dwelling unit other than a single-family home or duplex shall, at all times during the tenancy, make reasonable provisions for: 1. The extermination of rats, mice, roaches, ants, wood-destroying organisms, and bedbugs. When vacation of the premises is required for such extermination, the landlord shall not be liable for damages but shall abate the rent. The tenant shall be required to temporarily vacate the premises for a period of time not to exceed 4 days, on 7 days' written notice, if necessary, for extermination pursuant to this subparagraph. 2. Locks and keys. 3. The clean and safe condition of common areas. 4. Garbage removal and outside receptacles therefor. 5. Functioning facilities for heat during winter, running water, and hot water.

(b) Unless otherwise agreed in writing, at the commencement of the tenancy of a single-family home or duplex, the landlord shall install working smoke detection devices. As used in this paragraph, the term "smoke detection device" means an electrical or battery-operated device which detects visible or invisible particles of combustion and which is listed by Underwriters [Footnote 1] Laboratories, Inc., Factory Mutual [Footnote 2] Laboratories, Inc., or any other nationally recognized testing laboratory using nationally accepted testing standards.

(c) Nothing in this part authorizes the tenant to raise a noncompliance by the landlord with this subsection as a defense to an action for possession under s. 83.59.

(d) This subsection shall not apply to a mobile home owned by a tenant.

(e) Nothing contained in this subsection prohibits the landlord from providing in the rental agreement that the tenant is obligated to pay costs or charges for garbage removal, water, fuel, or utilities.

(3) If the duty imposed by subsection (1) is the same or greater than any duty imposed by subsection (2), the landlord's duty is determined by subsection (1).

(4) The landlord is not responsible to the tenant under this section for conditions created or caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of the tenant, a member of the tenant's family, or other person on the premises with the tenant's consent.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 22, ch. 82-66 s. 4, ch. 87-195 s. 1, ch. 90-133 s. 3, ch. 93-255 s. 444, ch. 95-147.

[Footnote 1] Note. The words "Laboratories, Inc." were substituted by the editors for the word "Laboratory" to conform to the complete name of the laboratory.

[Footnote 2] Note. The words "Laboratories, Inc." were inserted by the editors to conform to the complete name of the laboratory.

83.52 Tenant's obligation to maintain dwelling unit.

The tenant at all times during the tenancy shall:

(1) Comply with all obligations imposed upon tenants by applicable provisions of building, housing, and health codes.

(2) Keep that part of the premises which he or she occupies and uses clean and sanitary.

(3) Remove from the tenant's dwelling unit all garbage in a clean and sanitary manner.

(4) Keep all plumbing fixtures in the dwelling unit or used by the tenant clean and sanitary and in repair.

(5) Use and operate in a reasonable manner all electrical, plumbing, sanitary, heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and other facilities and appliances, including elevators.

(6) Not destroy, deface, damage, impair, or remove any part of the premises or property therein belonging to the landlord nor permit any person to do so.

(7) Conduct himself or herself, and require other persons on the premises with his or her consent to conduct themselves, in a manner that does not unreasonably disturb the tenant's neighbors or constitute a breach of the peace.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 445, ch. 95-147.

83.53 Landlord's access to dwelling unit.

(1) The tenant shall not unreasonably withhold consent to the landlord to enter the dwelling unit from time to time in order to inspect the premises make necessary or agreed repairs, decorations, alterations, or improvements supply agreed services or exhibit the dwelling unit to prospective or actual purchasers, mortgagees, tenants, workers, or contractors.

(2) The landlord may enter the dwelling unit at any time for the protection or preservation of the premises. The landlord may enter the dwelling unit upon reasonable notice to the tenant and at a reasonable time for the purpose of repair of the premises. "Reasonable notice" for the purpose of repair is notice given at least 12 hours prior to the entry, and reasonable time for the purpose of repair shall be between the hours of 7:30 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. The landlord may enter the dwelling unit when necessary for the further purposes set forth in subsection (1) under any of the following circumstances:

(a) With the consent of the tenant

(c) When the tenant unreasonably withholds consent or

(d) If the tenant is absent from the premises for a period of time equal to one-half the time for periodic rental payments. If the rent is current and the tenant notifies the landlord of an intended absence, then the landlord may enter only with the consent of the tenant or for the protection or preservation of the premises.

(3) The landlord shall not abuse the right of access nor use it to harass the tenant.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 5, ch. 87-195 s. 4, ch. 93-255 s. 446, ch. 95-147.

83.535 Flotation bedding system restrictions on use.

No landlord may prohibit a tenant from using a flotation bedding system in a dwelling unit, provided the flotation bedding system does not violate applicable building codes. The tenant shall be required to carry in the tenant's name flotation insurance as is standard in the industry in an amount deemed reasonable to protect the tenant and owner against personal injury and property damage to the dwelling units. In any case, the policy shall carry a loss payable clause to the owner of the building.

History: s. 7, ch. 82-66 s. 5, ch. 93-255.

83.54 Enforcement of rights and duties civil action.

Any right or duty declared in this part is enforceable by civil action.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330.

83.55 Right of action for damages.

If either the landlord or the tenant fails to comply with the requirements of the rental agreement or this part, the aggrieved party may recover the damages caused by the noncompliance.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330.

83.56 Termination of rental agreement.

(1) If the landlord materially fails to comply with s. 83.51(1) or material provisions of the rental agreement within 7 days after delivery of written notice by the tenant specifying the noncompliance and indicating the intention of the tenant to terminate the rental agreement by reason thereof, the tenant may terminate the rental agreement. If the failure to comply with s. 83.51(1) or material provisions of the rental agreement is due to causes beyond the control of the landlord and the landlord has made and continues to make every reasonable effort to correct the failure to comply, the rental agreement may be terminated or altered by the parties, as follows:

(a) If the landlord's failure to comply renders the dwelling unit untenantable and the tenant vacates, the tenant shall not be liable for rent during the period the dwelling unit remains uninhabitable.

(b) If the landlord's failure to comply does not render the dwelling unit untenantable and the tenant remains in occupancy, the rent for the period of noncompliance shall be reduced by an amount in proportion to the loss of rental value caused by the noncompliance.

(2) If the tenant materially fails to comply with s. 83.52 or material provisions of the rental agreement, other than a failure to pay rent, or reasonable rules or regulations, the landlord may:

(a) If such noncompliance is of a nature that the tenant should not be given an opportunity to cure it or if the noncompliance constitutes a subsequent or continuing noncompliance within 12 months of a written warning by the landlord of a similar violation, deliver a written notice to the tenant specifying the noncompliance and the landlord's intent to terminate the rental agreement by reason thereof. Examples of noncompliance which are of a nature that the tenant should not be given an opportunity to cure include, but are not limited to, destruction, damage, or misuse of the landlord's or other tenants' property by intentional act or a subsequent or continued unreasonable disturbance. In such event, the landlord may terminate the rental agreement, and the tenant shall have 7 days from the date that the notice is delivered to vacate the premises. The notice shall be adequate if it is in substantially the following form:

You are advised that your lease is terminated effective immediately. You shall have 7 days from the delivery of this letter to vacate the premises. This action is taken because (cite the noncompliance) .

(b) If such noncompliance is of a nature that the tenant should be given an opportunity to cure it, deliver a written notice to the tenant specifying the noncompliance, including a notice that, if the noncompliance is not corrected within 7 days from the date the written notice is delivered, the landlord shall terminate the rental agreement by reason thereof. Examples of such noncompliance include, but are not limited to, activities in contravention of the lease or this act such as having or permitting unauthorized pets, guests, or vehicles parking in an unauthorized manner or permitting such parking or failing to keep the premises clean and sanitary. The notice shall be adequate if it is in substantially the following form:

You are hereby notified that (cite the noncompliance) . Demand is hereby made that you remedy the noncompliance within 7 days of receipt of this notice or your lease shall be deemed terminated and you shall vacate the premises upon such termination. If this same conduct or conduct of a similar nature is repeated within 12 months, your tenancy is subject to termination without your being given an opportunity to cure the noncompliance.

(3) If the tenant fails to pay rent when due and the default continues for 3 days, excluding Saturday, Sunday, and legal holidays, after delivery of written demand by the landlord for payment of the rent or possession of the premises, the landlord may terminate the rental agreement. Legal holidays for the purpose of this section shall be court-observed holidays only. The 3-day notice shall contain a statement in substantially the following form:

You are hereby notified that you are indebted to me in the sum of dollars for the rent and use of the premises (address of leased premises, including county) , Florida, now occupied by you and that I demand payment of the rent or possession of the premises within 3 days (excluding Saturday, Sunday, and legal holidays) from the date of delivery of this notice, to wit: on or before the day of , 19 . (landlord's name, address and phone number)

(4) The delivery of the written notices required by subsections (1), (2), and (3) shall be by mailing or delivery of a true copy thereof or, if the tenant is absent from the premises, by leaving a copy thereof at the residence.

(5) If the landlord accepts rent with actual knowledge of a noncompliance by the tenant or accepts performance by the tenant of any other provision of the rental agreement that is at variance with its provisions, or if the tenant pays rent with actual knowledge of a noncompliance by the landlord or accepts performance by the landlord of any other provision of the rental agreement that is at variance with its provisions, the landlord or tenant waives his or her right to terminate the rental agreement or to bring a civil action for that noncompliance, but not for any subsequent or continuing noncompliance. Any tenant who wishes to defend against an action by the landlord for possession of the unit for noncompliance of the rental agreement or of relevant statutes shall comply with the provisions in s. 83.60(2). The court may not set a date for mediation or trial unless the provisions of s. 83.60(2) have been met, but shall enter a default judgment for removal of the tenant with a writ of possession to issue immediately if the tenant fails to comply with s. 83.60(2). This subsection does not apply to that portion of rent subsidies received from a local, state, or national government or an agency of local, state, or national government however, waiver will occur if an action has not been instituted within 45 days of the noncompliance.

(6) If the rental agreement is terminated, the landlord shall comply with s. 83.49(3).

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 23, ch. 82-66 s. 6, ch. 83-151 s. 14, ch. 83-217 s. 6, ch. 87-195 s. 6, ch. 93-255 s. 6, ch. 94-170 s. 1373, ch. 95-147.

83.57 Termination of tenancy without specific term.

A tenancy without a specific duration, as defined in s. 83.46(2) or (3), may be terminated by either party giving written notice in the manner provided in s. 83.56(4), as follows:

(1) When the tenancy is from year to year, by giving not less than 60 days' notice prior to the end of any annual period

(2) When the tenancy is from quarter to quarter, by giving not less than 30 days' notice prior to the end of any quarterly period

(3) When the tenancy is from month to month, by giving not less than 15 days' notice prior to the end of any monthly period and

(4) When the tenancy is from week to week, by giving not less than 7 days' notice prior to the end of any weekly period.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 3, ch. 81-190 s. 15, ch. 83-217.

83.58 Remedies tenant holding over.

If the tenant holds over and continues in possession of the dwelling unit or any part thereof after the expiration of the rental agreement without the permission of the landlord, the landlord may recover possession of the dwelling unit in the manner provided for in s. 83.59 F.S. 1973 . The landlord may also recover double the amount of rent due on the dwelling unit, or any part thereof, for the period during which the tenant refuses to surrender possession.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330.

83.59 Right of action for possession.

(1) If the rental agreement is terminated and the tenant does not vacate the premises, the landlord may recover possession of the dwelling unit as provided in this section.

(2) A landlord, the landlord's attorney, or the landlord's agent, applying for the removal of a tenant shall file in the county court of the county where the premises are situated a complaint describing the dwelling unit and stating the facts that authorize its recovery. A landlord's agent is not permitted to take any action other than the initial filing of the complaint, unless the landlord's agent is an attorney. The landlord is entitled to the summary procedure provided in s. 51.011 F.S. 1971 , and the court shall advance the cause on the calendar.

(3) The landlord shall not recover possession of a dwelling unit except:

(a) In an action for possession under subsection (2) or other civil action in which the issue of right of possession is determined

(b) When the tenant has surrendered possession of the dwelling unit to the landlord or

(c) When the tenant has abandoned the dwelling unit. In the absence of actual knowledge of abandonment, it shall be presumed that the tenant has abandoned the dwelling unit if he or she is absent from the premises for a period of time equal to one-half the time for periodic rental payments. However, this presumption shall not apply if the rent is current or the tenant has notified the landlord, in writing, of an intended absence.

(4) The prevailing party is entitled to have judgment for costs and execution therefor.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 1, ch. 74-146 s. 24, ch. 82-66 s. 1, ch. 92-36 s. 447, ch. 95-147.

83.595 Choice of remedies upon breach by tenant.

(1) If the tenant breaches the lease for the dwelling unit and the landlord has obtained a writ of possession, or the tenant has surrendered possession of the dwelling unit to the landlord, or the tenant has abandoned the dwelling unit, the landlord may:

(a) Treat the lease as terminated and retake possession for his or her own account, thereby terminating any further liability of the tenant or

(b) Retake possession of the dwelling unit for the account of the tenant, holding the tenant liable for the difference between rental stipulated to be paid under the lease agreement and what, in good faith, the landlord is able to recover from a reletting or

(c) Stand by and do nothing, holding the lessee liable for the rent as it comes due.

(2) If the landlord retakes possession of the dwelling unit for the account of the tenant, the landlord has a duty to exercise good faith in attempting to relet the premises, and any rentals received by the landlord as a result of the reletting shall be deducted from the balance of rent due from the tenant. For purposes of this section, "good faith in attempting to relet the premises" means that the landlord shall use at least the same efforts to relet the premises as were used in the initial rental or at least the same efforts as the landlord uses in attempting to lease other similar rental units but does not require the landlord to give a preference in leasing the premises over other vacant dwelling units that the landlord owns or has the responsibility to rent.

History: s. 2, ch. 87-369 s. 4, ch. 88-379 s. 448, ch. 95-147.

83.60 Defenses to action for rent or possession procedure.

(1) In an action by the landlord for possession of a dwelling unit based upon nonpayment of rent or in an action by the landlord under s. 83.55 seeking to recover unpaid rent, the tenant may defend upon the ground of a material noncompliance with s. 83.51(1) F.S. 1973 , or may raise any other defense, whether legal or equitable, that he or she may have, including the defense of retaliatory conduct in accordance with s. 83.64. The defense of a material noncompliance with s. 83.51(1) F.S. 1973 may be raised by the tenant if 7 days have elapsed after the delivery of written notice by the tenant to the landlord, specifying the noncompliance and indicating the intention of the tenant not to pay rent by reason thereof. Such notice by the tenant may be given to the landlord, the landlord's representative as designated pursuant to s. 83.50(1), a resident manager, or the person or entity who collects the rent on behalf of the landlord. A material noncompliance with s. 83.51(1) F.S. 1973 by the landlord is a complete defense to an action for possession based upon nonpayment of rent, and, upon hearing, the court or the jury, as the case may be, shall determine the amount, if any, by which the rent is to be reduced to reflect the diminution in value of the dwelling unit during the period of noncompliance with s. 83.51(1) F.S. 1973 . After consideration of all other relevant issues, the court shall enter appropriate judgment.

(2) In an action by the landlord for possession of a dwelling unit, if the tenant interposes any defense other than payment, the tenant shall pay into the registry of the court the accrued rent as alleged in the complaint or as determined by the court and the rent which accrues during the pendency of the proceeding, when due. The clerk shall notify the tenant of such requirement in the summons. Failure of the tenant to pay the rent into the registry of the court or to file a motion to determine the amount of rent to be paid into the registry within 5 days, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays, after the date of service of process constitutes an absolute waiver of the tenant's defenses other than payment, and the landlord is entitled to an immediate default judgment for removal of the tenant with a writ of possession to issue without further notice or hearing thereon. In the event a motion to determine rent is filed, documentation in support of the allegation that the rent as alleged in the complaint is in error is required. Public housing tenants or tenants receiving rent subsidies shall be required to deposit only that portion of the full rent for which the tenant is responsible pursuant to federal, state, or local program in which they are participating.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 7, ch. 83-151 s. 7, ch. 87-195 s. 7, ch. 93-255 s. 7, ch. 94-170 s. 1374, ch. 95-147.

83.61 Disbursement of funds in registry of court prompt final hearing.

When the tenant has deposited funds into the registry of the court in accordance with the provisions of s. 83.60(2) and the landlord is in actual danger of loss of the premises or other personal hardship resulting from the loss of rental income from the premises, the landlord may apply to the court for disbursement of all or part of the funds or for prompt final hearing. The court shall advance the cause on the calendar. The court, after preliminary hearing, may award all or any portion of the funds on deposit to the landlord or may proceed immediately to a final resolution of the cause.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 2, ch. 74-146.

83.62 Restoration of possession to landlord.

(1) In an action for possession, after entry of judgment in favor of the landlord, the clerk shall issue a writ to the sheriff describing the premises and commanding the sheriff to put the landlord in possession after 24 hours' notice conspicuously posted on the premises.

(2) At the time the sheriff executes the writ of possession, the landlord or the landlord's agent may remove any personal property found on the premises to or near the property line. Subsequent to executing the writ of possession, the landlord may request the sheriff to stand by to keep the peace while the landlord changes the locks and removes the personal property from the premises. When such a request is made, the sheriff may charge a reasonable hourly rate, and the person requesting the sheriff to stand by to keep the peace shall be responsible for paying the reasonable hourly rate set by the sheriff. Neither the sheriff nor the landlord or the landlord's agent shall be liable to the tenant or any other party for the loss, destruction, or damage to the property after it has been removed.

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 3, ch. 82-66 s. 5, ch. 88-379 s. 8, ch. 94-170 s. 1375, ch. 95-147.

83.625 Power to award possession and enter money judgment.

In an action by the landlord for possession of a dwelling unit based upon nonpayment of rent, if the court finds the rent is due, owing, and unpaid and by reason thereof the landlord is entitled to possession of the premises, the court, in addition to awarding possession of the premises to the landlord, shall direct, in an amount which is within its jurisdictional limitations, the entry of a money judgment with costs in favor of the landlord and against the tenant for the amount of money found due, owing, and unpaid by the tenant to the landlord. However, no money judgment shall be entered unless service of process has been effected by personal service or, where authorized by law, by certified or registered mail, return receipt, or in any other manner prescribed by law or the rules of the court and no money judgment may be entered except in compliance with the Florida Rules of Civil Procedure. The prevailing party in the action may also be awarded attorney's fees and costs.

History: s. 1, ch. 75-147 s. 8, ch. 87-195 s. 6, ch. 88-379.

83.63 Casualty damage.

If the premises are damaged or destroyed other than by the wrongful or negligent acts of the tenant so that the enjoyment of the premises is substantially impaired, the tenant may terminate the rental agreement and immediately vacate the premises. The tenant may vacate the part of the premises rendered unusable by the casualty, in which case the tenant's liability for rent shall be reduced by the fair rental value of that part of the premises damaged or destroyed. If the rental agreement is terminated, the landlord shall comply with s. 83.49(3) F.S. 1973 .

History: s. 2, ch. 73-330 s. 449, ch. 95-147.

83.64 Retaliatory conduct.

(1) It is unlawful for a landlord to discriminatorily increase a tenant's rent or decrease services to a tenant, or to bring or threaten to bring an action for possession or other civil action, primarily because the landlord is retaliating against the tenant. In order for the tenant to raise the defense of retaliatory conduct, the tenant must have acted in good faith. Examples of conduct for which the landlord may not retaliate include, but are not limited to, situations where:

(a) The tenant has complained to a governmental agency charged with responsibility for enforcement of a building, housing, or health code of a suspected violation applicable to the premises

(b) The tenant has organized, encouraged, or participated in a tenants' organization or

(c) The tenant has complained to the landlord pursuant to s. 83.56(1).

(2) Evidence of retaliatory conduct may be raised by the tenant as a defense in any action brought against him or her for possession.

(3) In any event, this section does not apply if the landlord proves that the eviction is for good cause. Examples of good cause include, but are not limited to, good faith actions for nonpayment of rent, violation of the rental agreement or of reasonable rules, or violation of the terms of this chapter.

(4) "Discrimination" under this section means that a tenant is being treated differently as to the rent charged, the services rendered, or the action being taken by the landlord, which shall be a prerequisite to a finding of retaliatory conduct.

History: s. 8, ch. 83-151 s. 450, ch. 95-147.

83.67 Prohibited practices.

(1) No landlord of any dwelling unit governed by this part shall cause, directly or indirectly, the termination or interruption of any utility service furnished the tenant, including, but not limited to, water, heat, light, electricity, gas, elevator, garbage collection, or refrigeration, whether or not the utility service is under the control of, or payment is made by, the landlord.

(2) No landlord of any dwelling unit governed by this part shall prevent the tenant from gaining reasonable access to the dwelling unit by any means, including, but not limited to, changing the locks or using any bootlock or similar device.

(3) No landlord of any dwelling unit governed by this part shall remove the outside doors, locks, roof, walls, or windows of the unit except for purposes of maintenance, repair, or replacement nor shall the landlord remove the tenant's personal property from the dwelling unit unless said action is taken after surrender, abandonment, or a lawful eviction. If provided in a written agreement separate from the rental agreement, upon surrender or abandonment by the tenant, the landlord shall not be liable or responsible for storage or disposition of the tenant's personal property. For the purposes of this section, abandonment shall not be presumed unless the tenant is absent from the premises for a period of at least 15 days.

(4) A landlord who violates the provisions of this section shall be liable to the tenant for actual and consequential damages or 3 months' rent, whichever is greater, and costs, including attorney's fees. Subsequent or repeated violations which are not contemporaneous with the initial violation shall be subject to separate awards of damages.

(5) A violation of this section shall constitute irreparable harm for the purposes of injunctive relief.

(6) The remedies provided by this section are not exclusive and shall not preclude the tenant from pursuing any other remedy at law or equity which the tenant may have.

History: s. 3, ch. 87-369 s. 7, ch. 88-379 s. 3, ch. 90-133.

83.681 Orders to enjoin violations of this part.

(1) A landlord who gives notice to a tenant of the landlord's intent to terminate the tenant's lease pursuant to s. 83.56(2)(a), due to the tenant's intentional destruction, damage, or misuse of the landlord's property may petition the county or circuit court for an injunction prohibiting the tenant from continuing to violate any of the provisions of that part.

(2) The court shall grant the relief requested pursuant to subsection (1) in conformity with the principles that govern the granting of injunctive relief from threatened loss or damage in other civil cases.

(3) Evidence of a tenant's intentional destruction, damage, or misuse of the landlord's property in an amount greater than twice the value of money deposited with the landlord pursuant to s. 83.49 or $300, whichever is greater, shall constitute irreparable harm for the purposes of injunctive relief.

R&G: A Brief History of Grime’s Softer Side

Like most future-facing genres, grime—the rhyme-focused dance sound out of East London—has had its fair share of mutations throughout its 16 years. There was “grindie” (grime and indie), experimental grime (house/techno-infused), sinogrime (Asian-influenced), and R&G (rhythm and grime), a spin-off that many critics and fans believe was too short-lived. At the back end of 2003, R&G was summoned by three British producers—Terror Danjah, DaVinChe, and Scratcha DVA (with the support of BBC Radio 1Xtra’s DJ Cameo)—who discerned an emotive warmth in the sound’s rough-and-ready rhythms. No longer was it all about the emcee and their hood-heavy content—grime was now able to show its softer side with the same level of cool.

A culmination of R&B vocals and harsh-sounding beats at 140 (or R&B melodies running through icy instrumentals), R&G was made anthemic by the sultry tones of London-based singers Sadie Ama, Lady Ny, Katie Pearl, and Gemma Fox. Their romantic yet empowering anthems proved that grime could be tamed under the right note, offering an alternative to the emcee-led culture it was built upon. But R&G wasn’t strictly for the women of the scene. East London grime outfit Ruff Sqwad had a penchant for it too “Together”—a track from their 2005 mixtape, Guns & Roses Vol. 1, which sampled the Police’s “Message in a Bottle”—saw the guys open up with some real, genuine emotion. If not through their productions, Ruff Sqwad would often nod to R&G by tackling themes of love within their lyrics, which wasn’t the norm for grime rappers at the time.

Following the 2006 release of Scratcha DVA’s The Voice of Grime—a now-classic, critic-approved album featuring over 20 singers—R&G’s once-bright spark, with a chance of lighting up the charts, fizzled out with no clear warning. Perhaps surprisingly, grime purists weren’t at the root of its demise. “The singers were just dropping off left, right, and center,” said DVA in a 2009 interview. “One minute, Gemma Fox would come in and make a banger, and then she’d disappear. Sadie would come along, and then disappear. No one just stayed there doing that whole sound, and that’s where it fell apart.”

After years of forum discussions and the odd column mention, the world was finally re-introduced to R&G in October 2013, upon the release of Kelela’s Cut 4 Me. With their Ruff Sqwad-esque backdrops from new wave experimentalists like Bok Bok, Jam City, Girl Unit, and Nguzunguzu, Kelela’s songs about being cocooned in love (“Bank Head”) and then devastatingly heartbroken by it (“Enemy”) captured R&G’s essence. The L.A.-based singer added a whole new depth to the R&G concept, though, striking chords with the electronic and alt-R&B scenes almost immediately. “I loved what Kelela did with that project,” Terror Danjah tells Pitchfork. “I recently worked with her on her forthcoming album and for her to say she was a fan of mine was mind-blowing to me, because I’m a big fan of hers. She represents everything R&G is about.”

Known for his cartoonish sound effects and glass-shattering bass patterns, East London’s Terror Danjah is one of the most respected beatmakers in grime, and helped form the blueprint of R&G’s sound. “I’m really into R&B slow jams, so at the time—2003, 2004—slow jams was still a big thing on local pirate radio,” he says. “I noticed as the beats got darker, the ladies were getting catered for less and less plus, I like sweet vocals over rugged beats. I was listening to a lot of Musiq Soulchild and ’90s R&B around that time.”

Watch the video: Bismarck - Sabaton Cover by Minniva ft. Quentin Cornet